TYPES OF AUDIT

Audit is not legally obligatory for all types of business organisations or institutions. On this basis audits may be of two broad categories i.e., audit required under law and voluntary audits.

  • Audit required under law: The organisations which require audit under law are the following:
  •  companies governed by the Companies Act, 1956;
  •  banking companies governed by the Banking Regulation Act, 1949;
  • electricity supply companies governed by the Electricity Supply Act, 1948;
  •  co-operative societies registered under the Co-operative Societies Act, 1912;
  •  public and charitable trusts registered under various Religious and Endowment Acts;
  • corporations set up under an Act of Parliament or State Legislature such as the Life Insurance Corporation of India.
  •  Specified entities under various sections of the Income-tax Act, 1961.

2. In the voluntary category are the audits of the accounts of proprietary entities, partnership firms, Hindu undivided families, etc. In respect of such accounts, there is no basic legal requirement of audit. Many of such enterprises as a matter of internal rules require audit. Some may be required to get their accounts audited on the directives of Government for various purposes like sanction of grants, loans, etc. But the important motive for getting accounts audited lies in the advantages that follow from an independent professional audit. This is perhaps the reason why large numbers of proprietary and partnership business get their accounts audited. Government companies have
some special features which will be seen later.

As already stated, the auditor should get the scope of his duties and responsibilities defined by obtaining instructions in writing. Also it is always a wise precaution to state in the report, accompanying the balance sheets of proprietary or partnership firms or other similar organisations, the nature of the work carried out and explain the important features of the financial statements on which a report has been made. Furthermore, to ensure that the report will be brought to the notice of all concerned, the accounts should bear reference to the report.

A special reference is necessary for non-profit making institutions like schools, clubs, hospitals. Most of these have some internal rules to govern their affairs and generally a provision about the requirement of audit is inserted. Activity in the nature of business is not altogether ruled out as a club may sell drinks and eatables to the members and their guests or a school may have endowed agricultural property to yield income. What makes them distinct, is the absence of the question of division of profit : any surplus which may arise can only be used for achieving the objects of the institution. Educational institutions, hospitals, associations, etc., irrespective of any internal rules, get their accounts audited because most of them enjoy government or municipal grants and, generally, for this purpose audited accounts are insisted upon.

Trust, however, stands on a slightly different footing; these may be public trusts or private trusts. Trusts can carry on business as well. In the majority of cases trustees are private persons. Trusts generally have two classes of beneficiaries; tenants for life and remainders; persons to whom the accounts is of the supreme importance are often widows and minors, who cannot criticise the accounts in any effective manner. Though audit of trusts, except for public trusts, is not compulsory most of the trust deeds contains a clause for audit of accounts. Private trustees also recognise the advantages of audit in their own interest, since any erroneous treatment in the accounts for which they might be personally liable will be pointed out by the auditor.

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