Training can defined as a short term and systematic process by which skills and capabilities of non managerial
employees are improved through organized procedures so as to enable them to be more productive on their
jobs. Thus training is job centred or task oriented and is concerned with imparting specific skills to subordinate
Managerial / executive development – The term development is used with reference to ‘training’ given to
managers and executives in an organization. Thus management or executive development is a long term
educational growth process by which managerial staff gain and learn conceptual knowledge for general
managerial and administrative purposes.
1. To raise the competence and skill level of workers to enhance increased productivity and efficiency.
2. Training and development helps to develop the abilities of individuals to satisfy current and future
manpower needs of the organization.
3. Training motivates employees and improves their potential.

Distinction between training and development
These terms can be distinguished on the basis of the following;
a) What is learned
b) Who is learning
c) Why such learning takes place
d) When learning occurs

1. Increased productivity and efficiency
2. Better customer service
3. Less wastage of resources and therefore reduction in cost due to minimization of errors.
4. Increased creativity and innovation
5. Speeds up the learning curve effects
6. Training can be used to introduce change thereby minimizing resistance to change.
7. Improves the corporate image of the organization when the staff is well trained.
8. It creates flexibility in the workers such that they can multi task.
9. Reduces the chances of work related accidents
10. The organization obtains trained personnel.
1. It facilitates growth in the career of an individual.
2. An individual becomes more marketable.
3. It enlarges an individual’s portfolio of skill
4. It has a social benefit i.e. it helps to raise the living standards of the citizens when they apply the skills gained.
5. It has a positive psychological impact on the individuals.
6. The acquired skills can be used in the future.
7. One becomes more confident in their work.
1. Identify the training need.
2. Define the training required.
3. Plan the training programme.
4. Implement the programme
5. Evaluate the performance
1. Identifying the training need:
A training need is a gap between the knowledge and skills required for the performance of a specific job and the knowledge and skills already possessed by the employees. It is a gap between what is and what should be.

Other indicators of training need
a) Change or advancement in technology
b) Changes in legislation affecting business operations.
c) Qualitative factors such as indiscipline, grievances and conflict.
d) Changes in the market e.g. a change in consumers’ tastes and preferences or an increase in competition.
e) Increase in labour turnover
2. Define the training required
This involves setting objectives that will be attained through the training. The objectives will help to define the requirements.
3. Plan the training programme
This is a concrete scheme of actions designed to ensure that the training objectives are achieved. The programme must be developed to meet the needs and objectives by using the right trainer, methods and facilities. Plans must be made for the following:-
i. Trainer/facilitator
ii. Location where the training will take place
iii. Methods or techniques of training
iv. Facilities that will be needed
v. Allocation of responsibilities
4. Implement the training programme
This is putting the programme into action
5. Evaluate and amend the training if necessary
Evaluation is a monitoring process which is meant to ensure that the training objectives are achieved. Evaluation can be done during or after the training programme.
1. Reaction of the trainees
2. Learning and skills acquired – post training test.
3. Change in behaviour
4. Impact on the organization
5. Impact on the relationship with the various stakeholders
NB: If the training objectives were not achieved the training programme is amended and extended. Objectives of training and development
Training objectives
i. To improve the technical capacity of an individual so as to improve job performance
ii. To improve health and safety of employees hence prevention of work related accidents.
iii. To reduce spoilt work hence less scrap or material wastage. This helps to reduce the cost of production and operations.
iv. To prepare personnel for future job challenges and promotion.
v. To enable employees adapt to a change in the work methods or procedures
vi. To enable employees learn the method of operating a new machine or equipment e.g. computers installed in the organization
vii. A change in production or the services offered the organization may necessitate training not only in production methods but also in the marketing of the company’s goods
Management development objectives
i. To prepare managers to cope with increased challenges of modern business especially competition and fast changing technology
ii. To improve managers performance in their present jobs
iii. To prepare managers for higher managerial positions i.e. succession planning.
iv. To build a steady source of supply of qualified and competent persons at all managerial levels i.e. to create a reserve of managers.
v. To compensate on managers’ lack of previous experience or training
vi. To prevent manager obsolescence.
Methods of management development
There are 2 broad methods or approaches of developing managers. i.e. External approaches and internal approaches External approaches to management development
Managers may be sponsored to attend the following development programmes:
i. University sponsored programmes e.g. MBA
ii. Trade and professional associations training programmes e.g. programmes sponsored by Institute of Bankers or ICPAK
iii. Consulting firms training programmes e.g. seminars, workshops or short term courses
iv. Government sponsored training programmes e.g. programmes offered by KIA, Government Training Institute (GTI)
v. Secondment to other firms in similar industries i.e. exchange development programmes between managers of the same industry
Internal approaches to management development Involve the following methods:- i. Job rotation – managers may be alternated to head various departments, divisions or branches.
ii. Assignment to committees and boards – participating in committee and board meetings enables managers to gain wide exposure on real issues affecting the organization and to understand the mechanisms of group decision making.
iii. Appointment as “assistant to” or “deputy to” the senior managers – this enables individuals appointed to such positions to learn from their immediate bosses through delegation.
iv. Case study method – case analysis enables managers to develop their analytical ability and decision making skills
v. Orientation / coaching by senior managers
vi. In house seminars, lectures or workshops. These may be conducted to train managers on current management issues e.g. TQM, BPR etc
vii. Sensitivity training i.e. behaviour modeling techniques. This is a method used to shape interpersonal behaviour of managers
viii. Secondment to sister firms in other countries.

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