By the end of this sub-module unit, the trainee should be able to:
- explain the nature and scope of management
- identify various levels of management
- explain various levels of management
- explain the managerial roles
- highlight qualities of an effective manager
Management is an integrating force or agency consisting of some basic functions for accomplishing the objectives of an organization. Thus management is the dynamic life giving element in every organization. So by bringing together factors of production, management enables societies to get better and increase the supply of goods and services.
DEFINITIONS OF MANAGEMENT
- According to McFarland
Management is a process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organizations through systematic coordinated and cooperative human efforts.
- L. Londy
Management is principally the task of planning, coordinating, motivating, and controlling the effort of others towards specific objectives.
- George R Terry
Management is a distinct process consisting of activities of planning, organizing, actuating, performed on the efforts of group members in order to utilize available resources of the group human efforts, materials, machines and methods in order to attain organization goals.
- According to Mary Parker Follet, management is defined as the art of getting things done through people in formally organized
- These definitions clearly identify four functions of management. However modern management classifies managerial function into five.
CHARACTERISTICS/ FEATURES OF MANAGEMENT
Management has the following salient features.
- Management is a process. This refers to the process of getting thing done by working with people to accomplish
- Management is goal oriented thus aims at achieving organizational goals/objectives
- Management is a group activity. It’s concerned with group efforts and not individual/efforts
- Management is a economic resource as it aims at reaping rich results in economic terms
- Principles of management have universal application. Apply more or less in every situation.
- Management is a system of authority. Managers at different levels have varying degree of
- Principles of management are dynamic and not static
- Management is integrative; the essence of management is to integrate human and other resources to achieve desired
- Management is both science and an art. Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of well-defined concepts, principles and techniques that have a wide application and thus a science. The application of this concepts principles and techniques requires skills thus management is also considered as an art.
PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
A principle is a fundamental statement of truth that provides a guide to thought and action. It establishes a cause and effect relationship between two more variables.
The principles of management lay down guidelines for improving management practice.
Variable this is something that can change affect the results of something.
Principles of management are “diagnostic guides” each business situation is unique and must be analyzed on its own merit. The exact application of these principles will depend upon its social economic, political and cultural factors in a particular organization.
NEED/REASONS FOR PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
- To increase efficiency – it enable a manager to take more realistic view of organizational problems and their solutions. It avoids the need for trial and error methods and improves the quality of managerial
- To crystallize the nature of management job – it helps in analyzing the management job and in defining the exact scope of management process. It provides a framework for training and education in
- To improve research in management – it serves as a focal point for useful research in group dynamics, both to ascertain their validity and to improve their applicability.
- To attain social goals– it enables more efficient utilization of human and material resources. In this way, management provides social satisfaction and improves the quality of life of
Criticism of the principles of management
- They are based on unrealistic premises
- They represent common sense and are too obvious
- Many of them are contradicting e.g. the principle of unity of command suggest a single boss for every employee while the principle of specialization advocates that specialists should guide subordinates in their respective
Nature/ characteristic of management principles
- Universality of principles– they can be applied in different types of organization
e.g. business, government, educational, military etc
- Dynamism – management principles are flexible guides rather than hard and fast rules. They are dynamic rather than static, diagnostic rather than determinative. Two management situations are seldom a like in all respects an therefore, management principles have to be modified with changes in the environment of the organization
- Human limitation– management is an inexact social science because it deals with human behavior which is a very complex and unpredictable and in order to understand and influence it, various principles developed in other fields and applied today in
- Relativity– management principles are relative rather than absolute. Therefore these should be applied according to the need of the organization and demands of the situation.
MANAGEMENT AS A SCIENCE OR AN ART OR A PROFESSION
There are different viewpoints as to whether management should be regarded as a science or an art or both. As a matter of fact, the management is an art as well as a science. This is explained as follows:
A science may be defined as “representing knowledge gathered by observation and experiment critically tested, systematized and brought under general principles”
It means that science is an organized or systematized body of theoretical knowledge pertaining to a particular field of enquiry. Such systematized body of knowledge contains concepts, principles and theories, which help to explain events and to predict the outcome of specific actions. These principles are capable of universal application.
Management as a science refers to the application of scientific methods in making decisions and evaluating different courses of actions. It involves obtaining of complete, valid and reliable information in respect of the problem under consideration before making a decision.
Management is a science because of the following reasons:-
- The principles of management have been developed through continuous observation and empirical verification
- There is a systematized body of knowledge in management principles are now available in every function of management and these principles help to improve managerial
- The principles of management are capable of universal application
- Management theory helps to examine and evaluate alternative courses of action to resolve a given
MANAGEMENT AS AN ART
An art may be defined as skills or knowledge in a particular field of activity or a method of doing a thing. It means that art involves the practical application of theoretical knowledge and skills to achieve desired results. It is concerned with creating of objects or events.
Management is essentially an art because of the following reasons:-
- The process of management involves the use of know how i.e. skills and knowledge
- Management seeks to achieve concrete practical results i.e. profit, growth etc
- Like an art, management is creative it brings out new solutions and makes resources productive. Management is creative since it involves molding and welding the attitudes and behavior of people at work for the accomplishment of specific goals in a changing environmental
- Good management is efficient and the success of a manager is measured by the effective realization of organized
Management is both an art as well as a science. Essentially managing is the art of doing and management is the body of knowledge which underlies the art. It must however be noted that science and art are complementary to each other. Science without art is sterile and art without science is blind.
The art and science of management go hand in hand. The art of management is guided by the science of management which in turn gets nourishment from the practice (art) of management.
MANAGEMENT AS A PROFESSION
A profession can be defined as:
It is a field where training is intellectual in nature a field in which one enters for the sake of others and in which financial reward is not considered as a measure of success
A profession is afield which is supposed to possess a well defined body of knowledge one which is leaned intellectual and organized one with entry restricted by examination or education and one which is concerned primarily with service to others above self- reward
Management is a profession since it meets the first criteria the body of knowledge requirement this is true from the vocational understanding of the function of business the general can discipline found in typical schools of business, the graduate programs where functions, organizations, social institutions social responsibilities and policy are emphasized
However mgt falls the test of professionalism on another criteria. Anybody can label himself a manager and apply it to the operation of business. Managers are never self- made instead they are the product of the classroom and research. Education and training are regarded by socially as vital to managerial progression and success and typically the educated managers are the ones to whom positions of power and real responsibility are given
The question of whether mgt is a profession is complex because mgt is a broad subject parts of the subject do have professional characteristics and others do not
The following criteria of a profession will help to identify those parts which may be considered to be professional:
- A profession is based on a proven systematic body of knowledge and thus requires intellectual training
- A profession maintains an experimental attitude towards information and thus requires a search for new ideas
- A profession emphasizes service to other and usually develops a code of ethics that requires that financial return should not be the only
- Entrance into a profession is usually restricted by standards established by an association that requires its members be accepted by a group composed with people common training
Management is not an a straight profession but it is making stride in that direction every enterprise presents possibilities for the application of the art and science of mgt and virtually every business is a potential source of employment of professional managers
FUNCTIONAL AND ROLE OF MANAGEMENT
The process of management consists of several interrelated activities. These activities are known as the functions of management. There is no universally acceptable classification of managerial functions. However, the following are main functions of management.
It is the primary function of mgt. it involves determining the objectives and selecting a course of action to achieve them it implies looking ahead and deciding in advance what is to be done when and where it is to be done, how and by whom it is done.
It is a mental process requiring the use of intellectual faculties, Foresight imagination and sound judgment it consist of forecaster decision making and problem solving
A plan is a predetermined future course of action it is today design for tomorrow and an outline of steps to be taken in future
The process of planning consist of
- Determination of objectives
- Forecasting and choice of a course of action
- Formulation of policies programmers budgets schedules etc to achieve the objectives
- Laying down of procedures and standards of performance
Planning may be long-term or short term. It is a pervasive function and managers at all levels have to prepare plans. It is a continuous or an ongoing process. It enables us to do things in an orderly and efficient manner. It is helpful in achieving the goals and facing uncertainly and change.
It is the process of establishing harmonious authority – responsibility, relationships among the members and the enterprise. It is the function f creating a structure of duties and responsibilities. The organization structure serves as the framework within which people can work together effectively for accomplishment of common objectives. It is an
important element of management because it is through organizing that a manager brings together the material and human resources required for the achievement of goals.
The process of organizing consists of the following steps:
- Determining and defining the activities required for the achievement of planned goals
- Grouping the activities into logical and convenient units
- Delegating authority to these positions and people
- Defining and fixing responsibility for performance
- Assigning the duties and activities to specific positions and people
- Establishing horizontal and vertical authority relationships throughout the
It is the process of filling all positions in the organization with adequate and qualified personnel
According to Koonts and O. Donnel the management function of staffing involves managing organizational structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal and development of personnel to fit the roles designated in the structure.
Staffing consists of:
- Integration and maintenance of employees
It is the managerial function of guiding, supervising, motivating and leading people towards the attainment of planned targets of performance. It is concerned with execution of plans and policies. It initiates organized actions and sets the whole organizational machinery into action. It is therefore, the life spark of an organization.
Directing embraces the following activities:
- Issuing orders and instructions
- Supervising people at work
- Motivating i.e. creating willingness to work for certain
- Communication i.e. establishing understanding with employees regarding plans and their
- Leadership or influencing the behavior of
It is the process of ensuring that the organization is moving in the desired direction and that progress is being made towards the achievement of goals.
The process of controlling involve the following steps:
- Establishing standards for measuring work performance
- Measurement of actual performance and comparing it with the standards
- Finding variances between the two and the reasons thereof
- Taking corrective action for deviations so as to ensure attainment of objectives
LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT
The different levels of management are explained as below:
- Top management (strategic level management)
- Middle level management (tactical level management)
- Lower level management (supervisory or operating management)
1. TOP MANAGEMENT
In case of a company it consist of the BOD and Chief Executives such as general managers, MDs, president, chairman cum M.D
It is the ultimate source of management and it’s the accountable for overall management to the shareholders of the company.
Main functions of top management
- To analyze, evaluate and deal with the environmental forces
- To establish overall long term goals and policies of the company including the master budget
- To represent the company to the outside world, e.g. trade associations, government, trade
- To exercise overall review and control on the company’s operation
- To coordinate the activities and efforts of different departments
- To appoint departmental and other key executives.
2. MIDDLE MANAGEMENT
This level of management consist of deputy heads of departments and sectional officers such as plant manager, are sales manager, or branch manager, chief accountants, purchase officers etc
These officers serve as a link between top management and operating management.
Functions of middle management
- To interpret and explain the policies framed by top and intermediate managements
- To compile and issue detailed instructions regarding operations
- To co-operate among themselves so as to integrate various parts of a division or a department.
- To motivate supervisory personnel to work for organizational goals
- To develop and train supervisory and operative
- LOWER /SUPERVISORY/ OPERATING MANAGEMENT
It is the lowest level of management. It consist of plant superintendent foremen and front line supervisors, sales officers, accounts officers etc.
It serves as the link between management and workers.
Functions of supervisory management
- To plan day to day production with the goals laid down by higher authorities
- To assign jobs to workers and to make arrangements for their training and development
- To supervise and control workers and to maintain personal contact with them
- To arrange material and tools and to maintain machinery
- To advice and assist workers by explaining work procedures, solving their problems etc
- To maintain discipline and good human relations among workers
- To report feedback information and workers problems this cannot be solved at the supervisory
This can be dramatically shown as below:
A skill is the ability to do something. Hence managerial skills are the mixture of talents that managers should possess in order to perform their roles efficiently. These skills make managers unique and different from their subordinates. Basically there are four managerial skills namely:-
- CONCEPTUAL SKILLS
These are mental abilities that enable managers to build their businesses in a wholistic manner. They enable managers to think in an abstract manner. It enables them to see relationships with both the internal and external environment.
These skills increase in importance as we move up the managerial levels.
- TECHNICAL SKILLS
These are abilities to use knowledge and expertise of a particular discipline to achieve the ends of goals. They are as a result of training and practice.
Since first level managers/supervisors spend most of their time with operating employees, they must have a good understanding of the work the subordinates perform if they are to supervise them.
- DIAGONISTIC SKILLS
These are skills that enable managers to define and understand situations and circumstances. They assist managers to interpret situations at hand and take corrective action. They increase in importance as we move up the managerial hierarchy.
- INTERPERSONAL SKILLS/HUMAN SKILLS
These are the abilities to work effectively with others and build cooperative group relationships to achieve organizational goals. They entail communication and motivation.
They enable managers to understand someone else position, to present ones own position in reasonable way and assist managers in dealing with conflicts and resistance.
These skills have equal importance at all levels.
MANAGERIAL ROLES BY HENRY MINTZBERG
Henry Mintzberg identified ten managerial roles which he grouped into three categories namely:-
- Inter personal roles
- Informational roles
- Decisional roles
- Figure head
In this role the manager plays a symbolic role. He carries out a variety of social, legal and ceremonial duties e.g. signing of certain documents, receiving visitors’ etc.
The manager relates with subordinate motivates and develops them. He is accountable of the activities of subordinates. He/she hires, trains and develops the subordinates.
- Liaison roles
The manager serves as a liaison between the organization and the external environment. Thus he establishes a network of contacts with other organization, customers, suppliers etc.
- Monitor role/Nerve centre
The managers seek information inside and outside the organization. He attends meetings with subordinates.
- Disseminator Role
In this role the manager passes information to subordinates. He may conduct staff meetings, send memorandums to subordinates and meets them informally. He ensures that they have necessary information to carry out their tasks efficiently.
- Spokesperson Role
He acts as the representative of the organization. He gives information to people outside the organization about its performance and policies. E.g. speaks to the community and in professional meetings, prepare advertisements etc.
- Entrepreneur Role
The manager takes initiative for bringing change in his organization. He performs the initiative and informative role in the organization.
- Disturbance Role
The manager deals with problems that arise when organization operations breaks down. He/she is responsible for the corrective action.
- Resource allocator role
The manager decides who will get what in the organization. He schedules every activity of the organization and ensures a balance in operations allocations of people, money etc.
- Negotiator Role
The manager is responsible for representing the organization is various important negotiations with other parties.
N/B Mintzberg emphasizes that these ten roles are inseparable and should be viewed as an integrated whole. E.g. status as manifested in interpersonal roles, brings information to the mangers, and it’s this information that will enable manager perform the decisional role effectively.
QUALITIES OF A MANAGER
The basic job of a manager is the effective utilization of human and other resources to achieve organizational objectives. He lays down the goals and directs the activities of the group toward effective utilization of resources so as to achieve organizational goals. The manager manages work, subordinates and other managers and materials.
In order for a manager to succeed he must posses the following qualities.
- Education –He should be well educated. He should posses both general education and specific education in business management/administration.
- Training -managerial skills are acquired through
- Intelligence –manager should have an ability to think scientifically ad analyze problems
- Leadership –Manager should be able to inspire and channel the efforts of people toward attainment of organizational goals. (Motivate)
- Foresight –The manager should be able to foresee problems which might face the business and take necessary measures
- Maturity – a good manager should be emotionally mature and have a balanced temperament. He should have high frustration
- Technical knowledge- a manager should possess peculiar knowledge to the technique of production being used in the enterprise
- Human relations attitude. A manager should be able to maintain good working relationship with others. He should treat workers
- Self-confidence. A manger should have confidence and take initiative on decision made. He should not fear carrying out his
- define the term
- Describe the skills that managers should posses in order to be effective
- Explain the ten managerial roles as propounded by Henry
- Describe the essential qualities of