FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Theory of recruitment process describes the process of recruiting. This is especially important in today’s workplace due to the increasing competition for talent in today’s job market. Recruitment is the process of identifying that the organization needs to employ someone up to the point at which application forms for the post have arrived at the organization. Selection then consists of the processes involved in choosing from applicants a suitable candidate to fill a post. Training consists of a range of processes involved in making sure that job holders have the right skills, knowledge and attitudes required to help the organization to achieve its objectives.
Meaning of Recruitment
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization”. Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers. A few definitions of recruitment are:
- A process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applications from which new employees are selected.
- It is the process to discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement of staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.
Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the selection, which helps create a pool of prospective employees for the organization so that the management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool. The main objective of the recruitment process is to expedite the selection process. Recruitment is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a pool of qualified applicants for the future human resources needs even though specific vacancies do not exist. Usually, the recruitment process starts when a manger initiates an employee requisition for a specific vacancy or an anticipated vacancy. Recruitment needs are of three types: planned i.e. the needs arising from changes in organization and retirement policy, anticipated needs which are those movements in personnel that an organization can predict by studying trends in internal and external environment and unexpected which include resignation, deaths, accidents, illness give rise to unexpected needs.
Factors affecting recruitment policy
An organizations recruitment factor highly depends on;
- Organizational objectives and image
- Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors.
- Government policies on reservations.
- Preferred sources of recruitment.
- Need of the organization.
- Recruitment costs and implications.
Recruitment is an essential process in that it;
- Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organization.
- Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization.
- Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities.
- Links the employers with the employees.
- Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.
- Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants.
- Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time.
- Ensures the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce.
- Is the first step in identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates
- Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants.
Components of the Recruitment Policy
A good recruitment policy should include;
- The general recruitment policies and terms of the organization
- Recruitment services of consultants where applicable
- Recruitment of temporary
- Unique recruitment situations
- The selection process
- The job descriptions
- The terms and conditions of the employment
A recruitment policy of an organization should be such that:
- It should focus on recruiting the best potential people.
- Ensures that every applicant and employee is treated equally with dignity and respect.
- Based on an unbiased policy.
- Aids and encourages employees in realizing their full potential.
- Transparent, task oriented and merit based selection.
- Weightage during selection given to factors that suit organization needs.
- Optimization of manpower at the time of selection process.
- Defines the competent authority to approve each selection.
- Abides by relevant public policy and legislation on hiring and employment relationship.
- Integrates employee needs with the organizational needs.