STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP (Note: New content will be developed to capture the new paper Leadership and Management. It had been developed as a common paper with CS but this has now been changed)

General objective

This paper is intended to equip the candidate with the knowledge, skills and attitudes that will enable him/her to formulate and implement innovative strategies for sustainable organisation’s competitive advantage

Learning Outcomes

A candidate who passes this paper should be able to:

  1. Analyze an organizations environment and formulate an actionable business strategy that is grounded in theory and practice from multiple business disciplines.
  2. Demonstrate an ability for critical and strategic thinking
  3. Develop and implement a strategic plan
  4. Understand the strategic decisions that organizations make in strategic management
  5. Effectively react to and incorporate emerging issues in strategic management.


Overview of Strategic Management and Leadership

  • Defining strategy
  • The purpose of strategic planning
  • Characteristics of Strategy
  • Advantages and disadvantages of strategic planning
  • Strategy Approaches
  • Strategic versus tactical decisions
  • Leadership approaches and strategy
    • Defining Leadership
    • Leadership traits
    • Leadership styles
    • Leadership skills and developing leadership skills
    • Creating a vision
    • Handling conflict
    • Ethics in leadership
  • The role of leadership in strategic management


Strategy Levels and intent

  • Corporate Strategy, Business strategy and Operational/ Functional strategy
  • Vision statement
  • Mission statement
  • Strategic objectives
  • Statement of corporate values


Strategic Management Process

  • Patterns of Strategy development
  • Steps in the strategic management process
  • Strategic management in different contexts (small business, multinational companies, voluntary and nonprofit organizations, professional service organizations, public sector organizations)
  • Uncertainty and Strategic Drift
  • Limitations of Strategic Management


Strategic Analysis: The External Environment

  • Environmental Analysis
  • PESTEL analysis (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Ecological, Legal)
  • Key drivers for change
  • Industry and Sector analysis
  • Tools for external analysis
    • Porter’s Five Forces Model,
    • Product life cycle Analysis
    • Directional Policy Matrices (BCG matrix, GE matrix, Shell matrix, Arthur D Little Strategic Condition Matrix)
  • Competitor Analysis
  • Industry types and dynamics
  • Competitors and markets
  • Opportunities and threats
  • Stakeholders
  • Stakeholder groups
  • Stakeholder mapping
  • Social Audits
  • Owners


Strategic Analysis: The Internal Environment

  • Distinctive resources and capabilities as a basis of competitive advantage
  • VRIO- value of resources and capabilities, rarity, inimitability, organizational support
  • Organizational knowledge as a basis of competitive advantage
  • Diagnosing resources and capabilities
  • The value chain and value system
  • Activity systems
  • Benchmarking
  • Strengths and Weaknesses
  • The Balanced Scorecard and Strategy map
  • Critical success factor analysis
  • Scenario planning
  • Gap Analysis
  • SWOT and the business model
  • Organizational culture
    • Importance of history
  • Path dependency
  • History as a resource
  • Historical analysis
  • Key features of corporate culture
  • Health cultures that aid strategy execution
  • Unhealthy cultures that impede strategy execution
  • Influence of culture on strategy
  • Undertaking cultural analysis


Business Strategy and Models

  • Generic competitive strategies
  • Cost leadership strategy
  • Differentiation strategy
  • Focus strategy
  • Hybrid strategy
  • The Strategy Clock
  • Interactive strategies
  • Interactive price and quality strategies
  • Cooperative strategy
  • Game theory
  • Business models
  • Value creation. configuration and capture
  • Business model patterns


Corporate Strategy and Diversification

  • Strategy directors
  • Diversification and performance
  • Vertical integration
  • Value creation and corporate parent
  • Portfolio matrices
  • The BCG (growth/share) matrix
  • The directional policy (GE- McKinsey) matrix
  • PIMS (Profit Impact on Marketing Strategy
  • Parenting matrix


International Strategy

  • Internationalization drivers
  • International business environment and challenges
  • Geographical sources of advantage
  • Locational advantage: Porter’s Diamond
  • The international value system
  • International strategies
  • Market selection and strategy
  • Internationalization and performance


Strategy Development Processes

  • Strategic Thinking
  • The paradox of logic and creativity
  • The art and science of strategic thinking
  • The “Deep Dive” analogy: acumen, allocation of resources and action
  • Strategy Formation
  • Deliberate strategy developers
  • Emergent strategy developers
  • Logical incrementalism
  • Strategy as an outcome of political processes
  • Implications for managing strategy development
  • Strategy development in different countries
  • Managing deliberate and emergent strategy


Matching Organizational Structure to Strategy

  • Value chain activities to be performed Internally
  • Value chain activities to be outsourced
  • Aligning structure with strategy
  • Organizational structure
  • Simple structure
  • Functional structure
  • Divisional structure
  • The Matrix structure
  • Multinational structures
  • Project-based structures
  • Strategy and structure fit
  • Delegation of authority
  • Systems
  • Planning system
  • Performance targeting systems
  • Configurations and adaptability
  • The McKinsey 7-Ss
  • Agility and resilience
  • Collaboration with external parties and strategic allies (network structure)


Leadership and Strategic Change

  • Strategic leadership vision and change
  • Leadership and strategic change
  • Strategic leadership roles
  • Leadership styles
  • Diagnosing the change context
  • Types of strategic change
  • Levers for strategic change
  • Methods of introducing strategic change
  • Problems of formal change programmes


The Practice of Strategy

  • The strategists
  • Top managers and directors
  • Strategic planners
  • Middle managers
  • Strategy consultants
  • Strategizing
  • Strategy analysis
  • Strategy issue-selling
  • Strategic decision making
  • Communicating the strategy
  • Strategy methodologies
  • Strategy workshops
  • Strategy projects
  • Hypothesis testing
  • Business cases and strategic plans
  • Strategy Implementation
  • What is involved in strategy implementation
  • Relationship between strategy formulation and implementation
  • Plans Programs and budgets
  • Steps for effective strategy implementation
  • Resource allocation


Strategic Control

  • Evaluation and Control in strategic management
  • The strategic control process
  • Monitoring evaluation and reporting
  • Measuring corporate performance
  • Strategic information systems
  • Guidelines for proper control
  • Sustaining Organizational effectiveness


Case Studies in Strategic Management and Leadership




Agarwal, A. K. (2017). Business Leadership and Law. Business Leadership and Law.

López-Fernández, A. M. (2018). Business leadership and market competitiveness: New paradigms for design, governance, and performance. Business Leadership and Market Competitiveness: New Paradigms for Design, Governance, and Performance.

Corporate Voices for Working Families (2007) Business Leadership: Supporting Youth Development and the Talent Pipeline Corporate Voices, 2600 Virginia Ave NW.

Leader, S. (2009). Essential Guide to Leadership. Harvard Business Review.

Flynn, G. (2008). The Virtuous Manager: A Vision for Leadership in Business. In Leadership and Business Ethics.

Vlasov, V., & Chromjaková, F. (2018). Leadership for the Future Sustainable Development of Business and Education. Leadership for the Future Sustainable Development of Business and Education.

Hasegawa Y. (2010), Rediscovering Japanese Business Leadership – 15 Japanese Managers and The Companies They’re Leading to New Growth. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.

David, F. R. (2011). Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases (Thirteenth Edition). Prentice Hall. ISBN 10: 0-13-612098-9  ISBN 13: 978-0-13-612098-8

Steiss, A. W. (2019). Strategic management for public and nonprofit organizations. Strategic Management for Public and Nonprofit Organizations.

Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. (2012). Strategic Management Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. Cengage Learning Academic Resource Center.

Faulkner D. (2007). Strategic Management. University of London. United Kingdom.

Barney B. J. & Hesterly S.W. (2015). Strategic Management and Competitive Advantage Concepts and Cases – Fifth Edition Pearson Education Limited England. ISBN 978-0-13-312740-9, ISBN 13: 978-1-292-06008-8.

Tonelli, M., & Cristoni, N. (2018). Strategic Management and the Circular Economy. Strategic Management and the Circular Economy.

Alkhafaji, A. F. (2013). Strategic management: Formulation, implementation, and control in a dynamic environment. Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation, and Control in a Dynamic Environment.

Katsioloudes, M. I. (2012). Global strategic planning: Cultural perspectives for profit and nonprofit organizations. Global Strategic Planning: Cultural Perspectives for Profit and Nonprofit Organizations.

Davenport, T. H., Leibold, Ma. & Voelpel, S. (2006). Strategic Management in the Innovation Economy.

Macmillan H. & Tampoe M. (2005) Strategic Management Process, Content and Implementation Oxford, United Kingdom.

Hill, C. W. L., & Jones, G. R. (2016). Strategic management: An integrated approach. Strategic Management an Integrated Approach. Cengage Learning, Stamford.

Lingnan University (2014). Strategic management syllabus. Tuen Mun, Hong Kong

Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B., & Lampel, J. (1998). Strategy Safari Wilds of Strategic Management. Free Press.

White, C., & White, C. (2004). Formulating strategy. In Strategic Management.

Ruxandra M. B. (2019). Sustainable Business Performance and Risk Management.: Risk Assessment Tools in the Context of Business Risk Levels Related to Threats and Opportunities Springer, Bucharest, Romania.

Just, V. (2020). Sustainable Business Processes in Global Companies Current Perspectives and Future Trends in Regard to Efficiency and Risk Management Springer, Bucharest, Romania.



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