It was founded by Fredrick Taylor and it puts emphasis on scientific thinking where managers MUST give justification for decision making.
The aim of the theory was to change the attitude of the employees and the managers towards one another and work.

Objectives of the Theory

  1. To use a lot of skills and knowledge in the production process.
  2. To revolutionize the whole process of production and marketing by having professionals in charge.
  3. To standardize the plans, tools, materials and working conditions in order to increase production
  4. To reduce the possibility of slackness in production as a result of accidents.
  5. To help the workers through proper guidance.
  6. To increase the level of wages, profits and customer service to the highest levels.

Principles of the Theory

  • The principles of task idea
    It states that favorable conditions at work will make the workers to perform miracles and increase productivity.
  • The principle of standardization
    By the end of this topic the learner should be able:
  1. To fully explain the different theories of management
  2. To discuss the relevance of modern theory of management
  3. To identify the disadvantages of bureaucratic theory of management

According to this principle, the work activities and method of production should be uniform to avoid biasness so as to achieve the quality product/service.

  • The principle of selection and training
    It states that proper policies and guidelines be formulated to ensure that only qualified personnel are employed and those without the skills be trained.
  • The principle of division of work
    It states that division of work should be undertaken because it leads to specialization which further leads to increased production.
  • The principle of proper use of plant
    It states that the organization’s resources both human as well as physical should be put to proper use. The managers should minimize their misuse.
  • The principle of planning
    – It states that planning should be the first function for any manager because it helps to achieve the organizational goals with ease and without conflicts.
  • The principle of healthy working environment.
    It states that the work environment should be worker friendly so as to achieve quality output.
  • The principle of incentives
    It states that the organization should their employees reasonable salaries.

Advantages of the theory

  1. Uniformity
    It gave birth to standardization of tools, working methods e.t.c which led to uniformity.
  2. Incentives
    Because of incentives, the workers performance increased greatly.
  3. Wastage
    It reduced the level of wastage in production process through scientific selection and training.
  4. It puts emphasis on better utilization of available organization’s resources.
  5. The system provides for the satisfaction of the needs of the customers by providing high quality product/services at lower prices.
  6. It puts emphasis on good harmonious relationships between workers and management.
  7. It puts emphasis on proper selection, training and promotion of employees.
  8.  It has led to specialization which in turn led to increased productivity and job satisfaction.

Disadvantages of the theory
1. It puts a lot of emphasis on employee incentives but less on compensation in an event of an accident.
2. It has overlooked the human desire for job satisfaction.
3. It assumes the social needs of workers such as forming and joining a trade union, welfare society e.t.c
4. The techniques of scientific management dehumanize the workers by making them to work like mindless machines.
5. It rules out any bargaining about wages by emphasizing on the manager setting salaries and wages.
6. It gives too much power to managers which cause conflict and resistance.

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