What is resistance to change
• a multifaceted phenomenon which introduces delays, additional costs and instabilities into the process of change.
• May take the form of:
- Procrastination and delays in triggering the process of change.
- Unforeseen implementation delays and inefficiencies which slow down the change and make it cost more than originally anticipated.
- Efforts within the organization to sabotage the change or to absorb it in the welter of other priorities.
Types of resistance
- Systemic resistance
- Behavioral resistance
- Organizational Resistance caused by among other factors:
- Organization design
- Organizational culture
- Resource limitations
- Fixed investments
- Inter-organizational agreements
- Defined as the passive incompetence of the organization occasioned by the above factors
- It is proportional to the difference between the capacity required for new strategic work and the capacity to handle it.
- It occurs whenever the development of capacity lags behind strategy development.
Minimizing systemic change
- Provide dedicated capacity by planning and budgeting for it.
- Integrate management development into the change process.
- Stretch the duration of change to maximum possible to assure timely response to environmental challenges.
- Use sequence: behavior development system build up strategic action
- Managers in other departments
- Collective resistance
- Managers who share common tasks
- Coalitions and power centers within the organization
Reasons for resistance by individuals
- Parochial self interest
- Though of loss of something of value as a result
- Political camps in organizations fighting each other (power struggle)
- Misunderstanding and lack of trust
- Implications not understood
- Lack of trust of those in authority or in other departments.
- Resist in order to save face – accepting may mean admitting past mistakes
- Low tolerance for change
- Fear of not being able to develop skills/behaviors required
- Different assessments
- Different view from managers
- Some may see more costs than benefits
- May be good if based on full information as it may point to some potential problem
- Threat to Job Status/Security
- Employees worry that any change may threaten their job or security.
- Breakup of Work Group
- Changes can tear apart established on-the-job social relationships.
- Competing Commitments
- Change can disrupt employees in their pursuit of other goals.
Dealing with behavioral resistance to change
Education + communication
- Commonly used in situations where there is a lack of information or inaccurate information and analysis
- Once persuaded, people will often help with the implementation of the change
- Can be very time consuming if lots of people are involved Participation + involvement
- Commonly used where the initiators do not have all the information they need to design the change, and where others have considerable power to resist.
- People who participate will be committed to implementing change, and any relevant information they have will be integrated into the change plan
- Can be very time consuming if participators designed inappropriate
- Facilitation + support
- Commonly used where people are resisting because of adjustment problems
- No other approach works as well with adjustment problems Drawbacks
- Can be time consuming, expensive and still fails
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