FRIDAY: 3 September 2021.                                                                                      Time Allowed: 3 hours.

Answer ALL questions. Marks allocated to each question are shown at the end of the question.


Corruption and money laundering are a threat to leadership and integrity to both national and county governments.

With reference to the above statement:

1.           Differentiate between “corruption” and “money laundering”.                                                                                            (4 marks)

2.          Discuss three ways in which money laundering might manifest itself in national and county governments. (6 marks)

3.           Explain five circumstances under which a member of a constitutional commission or an independent office might be removed from office in your country.                                                                                                                           (5 marks)

4.          Summarise the legal provisions governing the vacation of office of a secretary to Urban and Cities Board in your country.              (5 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.          Discuss four public policy models commonly applicable in your country.                                                                        (8 marks)

2.          With reference to the structure and organisation of your national government, examine four bodies which provide oversight role on the use of public funds.                                                                                                                          (4 marks)

3.          Evaluate four resource mobilisation strategies that could be employed in the public sector.                                               (8 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.          Describe an executive order in public policy making.                                                                                                        (2 marks)

2.          Summarise four merits of using executive orders as a source of public policy.                                                                 (4 marks)

3.           Public policy and administration has developed to be scientific and applies research data and technology in its processes.

With reference to the above statement, discuss five roles of research data from a national bureau of statistics with relation to public policy and administration.                                                                                                                    (10 marks)

4.          Explain four elements of public participation which would enhance the impact of public policy and administration to the citizens of a country.                                                                                                                                                 (4 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.           Summarise five functions of the Council of County Governors in your country.                                                              (5 marks)

2.           Explain five features of a well written public policy brief.                                                                                                 (5 marks)

3.           Discuss the activities involved in the public policy analysis process.                                                                              (10 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.           With reference to public debt, distinguish between “internal debt” and “external debt”.                                                    (4 marks)

2.          Explain six risks associated with public private partnerships (PPPs) in developing countries.                                          (6 marks)

3.          Summarise six functions of the Public Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA) in your country.                              (6 marks)

4.          Identify four advantages of budgeting and budgetary control in public sector.                                                                  (4 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)

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