Promotion is a function of marketing mix and is a technique used in creating awareness on the company’s product as well as the company itself.



This is any paid form of non-personal presentation of ideas(goods or services) by an identified sponsor.


1.Public presentation-advertising is public in nature because many people receive the same message and sellers know that motives for purchasing products will be publicly understood by the target population.

2.Pervasiveness-this permits the seller to repeat the message to many allows the buyer to receive and compare the messages of various also indicates the sellers size,power and success.

3.Amplified expressiveness/dramatise-this provides the opportunities for dramatizing company and its products through artful use of print,sond and colour.

4.Impersonality-the audience does not feel obliged to pay attention or respond to the advertisement .it is usually a monologue infront of the audience ie a one way communication.


  • Used to inform consumers about a new product or an existing product by mentioning the features of the product.
  • Used to persuade consumers to purchase a particular brand where such a brand is believed to be offering quality for the value of money spent by the consumer.
  • Used in comparing one brand directly or indirectly to another or to existing competitors brands available in the market.
  • Used to remind consumers that they need topurchase the product.
  • Indicate new uses of an existing product.
  • Give information of price changes,special offers etc.
  • Build brand recognition.
  • Increase market share and demand.
  • Increase the number of retail outlets.

10.Build overall company image.

11.Reach new segment/areas.

12.Develop overseas markets



  1. It is usually very attractive and entertaining, hence difficult to ignore.
  2. It appeals to both the literate and illiterate and is viewed by all irrespective of age,gender etc.
  • The combination of visual and audio effects and dramatization makes it very effective.
  1. Advertisements can be aired at the most appropriate time when the targeted audience is most likely to be reached.


  1. Television sets are generally expensive and out of reach for many Kenyans.
  2. It is a costly medium to use.
  • It may be affected adversely by mechanical break downs, power failures and unfavorable weather conditions which make reception poor.
  1. Viewing is limited to areas with electricity or people who can afford batteries.
  2. The advertisements may not appeal to all the viewers due to age, gender or cultural bias.
  3. Coverage is not so large compared to other means .
  • Newspaper, magazines and trade journals.


  1. Newspapers have a wide circulation, appropriate for businesses operating nation wide.
  2. They are relatively cheap for the reading public.

Some newspapers are published in local languages.

  1. Many magazines aim at reaching specific population groups. this suits the needs of advertisers who wish to reach these groups.
  2. Messages in newspapers and magazines have an aspect of permanence which radio and television advertisement do not have
  3. Some magazines are quite informative and entertaining, hence attracting a wide readership


  1. Newspapers which have a national circulation are not effective in targeting specific
  2. Illiterate consumers may not be reached.
  • Newspapers have a short life span for each edition e.g. it is very unlikely for people to read past newspapers
  1. Some magazines are quite expensive, hence have a limited readership.
  2. Readers may ignore the advertisements altogether due to familiarity or they may just be interested in specific information due to lack of time.


  1. They are attractive they therefore catch the attention of prospective customers easily.
  2. They have a fairly long span.
  • Their reach is many people get to see them.
  1. Some are modified to rotate in order to accommodate more than one advertisement.
  2. Many people can view them at one time.


  1. Some may require security to avoid vandalism.
  2. They are expensive to design, put up and maintain.
  • Interferes with the environment (space) by being unsightly and causing unnecessary obstruction of general view.
  1. They may be ignored by busy motorists.
  • Posters


  1. The pictures are appealing to the illiterate
  2. They reach many people as they can easily be distributed.
  • They are cheap to produce.
  1. A mixture of colour can be used to target a certain geographical region ie can be localized.
  2. They can stay for a long period of time if they are not interfered with.


  1. Permission may be required to put them up.most of areas have posters warnings.
  2. They have a very short life as they hardly last for more than a few days due to some harsh weather conditions.
  • They make the areas in which they are put up untidy.
  1. They are easily ignored by busy people as they are silent.
  2. They do not appeal to illiterate people
  3. They are brief


  1. Many people own radios hence radio advertisement have a very wide reach.
  2. Radios are used by a large number of people meaning the reach of the advertisement will be multiplied.
  • Radio advertisements can be made entertaining thus hold the attention of the intended audience.
  1. The advertisements can be broadcast in many local  languages to increase the research even further.
  2. If a catchy, familiar tune is used with the advertisement, the listeners tend to internalize it.


  1. Poor timing may lead to the advertisements being missed by the desired target group.
  2. It is expensive especially so when they are aired at prime time and if they are lengthy.
  • It could be a source of irritation to the listeners of popular programmes especially if aired in the middle of the programmes or if they take too long this irritation may distract the audience from advertisement.
  1. Radio transmission may be interrupted by poor weather or mechanical breakdowns,making the advertisement less effective.
  2. The advent of many radio stations makes advertising expensive as one may have place advertisements in all of them if the product being advertised is meant for the general public.
  • Exhbitions
  • Videos
  • Slide


11.Ad post-notice boards along major streets

12.Ad shells-shelter places with roofing; waiting bays for vehicles.

13.Bronchures-small booklets containing pictures and information about a product or a service.

14.Cinema-used to transmit visual and sound messages about products before the start of a show,at the interval ,and at the end of the is done at cinema theatres and at mobile cinema shows which are common in rural areas.

15.Neon signs

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