TOPIC 1: PROJECT MONITORING
Meaning of Project Monitoring
Importance of Project Monitoring
Types of Monitoring
Steps in Monitoring
Characteristics of a good Monitoring System
Challenges faced in Monitoring of projects
BASIC CONCEPTS IN MONITORING
This is a group of activities done by people (monitors) who follow a plan to check program implementation
This is a person who uses a monitoring procedure .The person may or may not have another program responsibility
This a description of specific compositions from a monitoring system will be used when they when it will be used and how the results will be reported
This is a group of components related to some aspect of program implementation .Each component includes a description of a standard group of indicators and some description of some adjustments to make when the situation deviates from the standard
Indicators are units of measurement that give us sources of reality when worked at in totally, they give reality. They are parts of a whole.
It is a description of what to do when an indicator shows the situation deviation from ascent and performance or conditions
MEANING OF PROJECT MONITORING
Refers to a continuous tracking of a project progress with a view of ensuring efficiency. It is a systematic and continuous collection analysis and interpretation of dates with a view of ensuring that everything is moving on as planned.
Project monitoring is an integral part of day – to- day management. It provides information by which management can identify and solve implementations problems and access progress.
Monitoring also involves giving feedback about the progress of the project to the donor – implementation and beneficiaries of the project enables gathering information used in making decision for improving project performance .the dates acquired through monitoring
is used for evaluation .
Monitoring usually focuses on process such as when and where activities occur, who delivers them and how and how many people or entities they reach.
Monitoring is conducted after a program has begun and continuous throughout the program implementation period.
Monitoring clarifies program objectives and their resources to objectives; translates objectives into performance indicators and sets a target. Routinely collects data on this indicators, compares actual results with targets.
Monitoring gives information on where a policy, program or project at any given time (or over time) relative to respective targets and outcomes ,monitoring focuses in particular on efficiency and the use of resources .
IMPORTANCE OF PROJECT MONITORING
The main purposes for carrying out Monitoring and Evaluation include;
Ensuring that planned results are achieved,
Supporting and improving project management,
Generating shared understanding,
Generating new knowledge and support learning,
Building capacities of those involved,
Motivating stakeholders and
Fostering public and political support
The following benefits accrue from monitoring:
Improved performance of all activities through timely feedback to stakeholders
Means of ensuring that performance takes place in accordance with work-plans
Improved coordination and communication through readily available information.
Provision of greater transparency expected by all stakeholders
Improved awareness about programme activities among all stakeholders
Enhanced external/Governments support due to accurate and timely reporting on use of funds
Confirmation of whether the project addresses the needs of special groups like the poor, disabled, children etc.
Assessment of whether the project is on track in meeting the programme goals
Informed contribution to future programme designs
Help make decisions and recommendations about future directions
Identify the strengths and weaknesses of a project
Feed data back to support programs and policies
Assess and determine stakeholder and target group satisfaction
Determine whether the project is meeting its objectives
Meet demands for accountability to funding bodies
Develop the skills and understanding of people involved in a project
Promote a project to the wider community.
TYPES OF MONITORING
1. Input monitoring
Input monitoring is a type of monitoring which continually assess the impact of project activities to the target population .Impact is usually the long-term effects of a project. However for projects with long-term lifespan of programs (programs have no defined timelines) there emerges a need for measuring impact change in order to show weather the general conditions of the intended beneficiaries improving or otherwise. The manager monitors impact the predetermined set of impact indicators. Monitoring both the positive and negative impacts intended, impacts of the project\ program becomes Imperative For example : In a water and sanitation program there may be a need to monitor change in under 5 mutuality in the program are over time .In this case rather than being identified as an
impact revaluation this would be identified as impact monitoring.
2. Performance monitoring
Projects are mainly designed and funded to achieve desired outcomes. Assessing those outcomes and changes are the key functions of M$E unit “value for money” of a project is assessed through assessment of performance indicators
Performance or outcome indicators are usually outlined from the project proposals and those are inserted into an M$E plan
To access progress for performance indicators baseline is important .Baseline data shows the pre project status of performance outcome indicators. Baseline studies are conducted through systematic process and methodologies Once baseline data realistic targets are together with the project implementing staff. Once target for the outcome /performance indicators are set sources of data and methods of data collection for the data indicators is identifiedThis enables the M$E staff to be aware of data collection sources and sampling to followed
.The M$E plan also provides information about frequency/ timeline for each performance
indicator to be assessed over a period of time.
Periodic assessment are conducted by drafting a concept note
The concept note briefly outlines
Purpose of assessment
Scope and indicators to be tracked
Methodology tools and sampling size
Types of tools to be used in the data collection
Who will participate in the data collection
Who and where the data will be analyzed and managed
Reporting and timeline
3) Technical monitoring
Technical monitoring involves assessing the strategy that is being used in project implementation to establish weather its achieving the required results .It involves the technical aspects of the project such as the activities to be conducted .In a safe water project for example
Physical progress monitoring may show that there is little or no uptake of chlorine as a water treatment strategy. Technical monitoring may establish that this could be a result of installing chlorine dispensers at the source and women are too time constrained that they have no time to line up and to get chlorine from dispensers .This may prompt a change of strategy where the project might opt for house hold distribution of bottled chlorine.
4) Financial monitoring Just like the name suggests financial monitoring simply refers to monitoring projects /program expenditure and comparing them with the budget prepared of the planning stage .The use of funds at the disposal of the program/project is crucial for ensuring there are no excesses or wastages Financial monitoring is also important for accountability and reporting purposes as well as for
measuring financial efficiency (The maximum of the outputs with minimal inputs)
Process monitoring is a key component of any M$E system process monitoring informs management and a donor about the actual implementations of project activities in the field
At the same time process monitoring lets the project staff on ground , know how well they implement the project and what they can bring to the work they are doing on the
Project monitoring is conducted using checklists and guidelines .Those checklists are developed jointly with the project staff
The same checklists and guide lines are used by field staff while implementation project activities .Following the same checklist /guidelines by both the monitoring staff and the field staff help the M$E staff to identify and share gaps that are identified during the
process monitoring .Participants share a sample of monitoring guidelines.
In order to undertake process monitoring. A monitoring tool is required that capture the following information:::
Purpose of the monitoring visits
Which activities does the visit cover
Methodology adopted for the visit
Key findings for the field
Feedback by the field staff
The breaking points agreed
Deadlines and responsibilities
STEPS IN PROJECT MONITORING
1. Conducting a readiness assessment
How monitoring will support attainment of objectives, Reaction to results
2. Agreeing on what to monitor
Stakeholder identification and involvement
Identify stakeholder’s major concerns
Disaggregate data to capture key desired outcomes (gender age economic status, rural, urban)
3. Selecting the key performance indicators to monitor outcomes -translate outcomes to a set of measurable performance indicators
Indicators are signs that show changes in certain conditions, an indicator is simply a measurement which are compared over time in order to assess change.
4. Setting baselines and collecting data on the indicators
Baseline is info before the monitoring period (critical measurement of indicator) Identify the sources of data, collection methods, who to collect, frequency, cost, reporting and use
5. Select result targets
Consider baseline indicator level, set the desired level of improvement spread over specified time
6. Decide on the method of monitoring to use
Activity based-activity implemented on schedule
Result based –focuses on impact
7. Monitor the project
-use of a filling system to organize all communications ,reports ,minutes of meetings and any other that can be used to keep track of project activities
-use of document logs like activity logs to track events and progress of the project activities and contact logs to record the time and details of contacts
-tracking software for project documents or recording websites and other technology related activities
8. Document and disseminate results
CHARACTERISTICS OF APPROPRIATE MONITORING SYSTEM
Focuses on results and follow up
What is going as planned and what’s not
Report and recommend
Depends largely on good policy/program design
Treat risks explicitly
Requires regularity: visits by program staff and analysis of reports Data management of feedback from stakeholders
Monitoring institutionalized –culture
Focuses on participation to ensure passion, commitment and ownership Stakeholder identification and full involvement
Based on a clear criteria and indicators Identify success criteria for scope, quality, cost and time objectives
Assess and review relevance of project
Develop quality indicators- Monitoring is not about the quantity of indicators, it is about their quality
Necessity of electronic media for memory and sharing lessons
CHALLENGES FACED IN MONITIRING OF PROJECTS
Absence of separate monitoring unit,- Lack of prior planning for M&E as an important component it being a by the way
Existence of weak unit, lack of coordination,
Lack of ownership of the M&E process and results
Lack of stakeholder involvement
Corruption –influence by interested parties
Poor data management skills Financial
Inadequate financial resources and/or liquidity etc)
Different funders –different reporting systems Staff and Training
Lack of adequate trained/qualified staff, transfer of experienced staff.
Lack of commitment Information
Frequency of flows, content, quality Intangible elements
Negative attitude toward monitoring –a fault finding activity Delays
(procedures, sanctions, late action etc
TOPIC 1: PROJECT MONITORING