• This is a crucial stage of nay project since the objective of the earlier effort in the stages above was to have projects to be undertaken.
  • Implementation is the process in which plans are carried out to achieve specific objectives.
  • It involves estimating the people and resources to implement the plan.
  • It is a phase where project is made to happen. It is also a phase where controls are imposed to ensure project implementation remains on course.

Implementation of project revolves around three important functions namely:-

  • Organize – assigning duties and coordinating staff and activities
  • Directing – giving instructions and delegating duties to various members of the staff
  • Supervising – maintaining control, check ups and outs on project activities and on staff implementation.


Factors to Consider In Project Implementation

  • Government and other stakeholder’s policies – these should be made in case of flexibility on reality on the ground.
  • Priority and order of goals – most crucial and needed goal must be put at the forefront during implementation. Priority is made in terms of the urgency in the needs to be accomplished.
  • Availability of resources – allocation of resources is done based on the resource base. At implementation ensure adequate resources are allocated influx in resource allocation should be avoided at the same time avoid over budgeting. Work done per stage is effective if the human resource is available and effective.
  • Timing aspects – time expected to accomplish a certain task has to be re-instated. Too much time allocation as well as less time allocation should be discouraged
  • Initial plans – carry out the implementation according to realistic practical initial plans and designs in view of meeting the overall goal.

Role of a Project Manager in Project Implementation

The role of a project manager in the implementation process is an integrated process that involves the following aspects:

Allocation of resources

  • Project resources are human, material and natural resources. They should be allocated to the activities to be performed by the manager. They are made available and used in economic way to ensure effectiveness of the project.
  • The project manager needs to consider the total demand for key resources. When considering the project as a whole, these will be completion between activities for resources and the demand may either exceed the planned availability or produce a fluctuating pattern of their use. This is known as resource aggregation.


  • This is the process that involves the shaping of an organization as it grows shrinks, collapses or even changes.
  • It is also the process of grouping activities and resources in a logical and appropriate way/fashion
  • It is involved with procurement factors i.e. people, equipment, materials and services. It also involves grouping and alignment of resources and delegation of authority and responsibility within the organization so that work is carried out as planned.

Grouping of resources and activities to accomplish some end results in an efficient and effective manner requires the following:-

  • Designing of jobs
  • Authority and responsibility
  • Span of management
  • Managing line and staff position
  • Task determination
  • Job description
  • Organizing units
  • Grouping jobs

Designing of jobs

  • Is the process of determining what procedure and operations are to be performed by employers in each position?

It involves

  • Job specialization – is the process of breaking down one job into several other jobs.
  • Job rotation – is the systematic moving of employees from one job to another.
  • Job enlargement – changing nature of job by adding more activities
  • Job enrichment – changing nature of the job by adding more activities to the business and more discretion in how to do or perform activities.

Grouping Jobs

  • The process of grouping jobs is also referred to as departmentalization normally done after jobs have been designed and then grouped into logical sets i.e.
  • Departmentalization by product – set your department in relation to the number of products.
  • Departmentalization by function – i.e. By functional areas of management i.e. Financial, research, marketing, human resource department etc
  • Departmentalization by location/region – they are normally organizations that cover many regions e.g coca cola company.

Authority and Responsibility

  • While authority is power to carry out task or assignment, responsibility can be defined as a duty or obligation to carry out an assignment or task.
  • At the level of an individual manager, when the manager assigns task to the organizational level, it is referred to as decentralization.
  • Delegation is the process through which the manager assigns post of his/her work to subordinates 

Barriers to Delegation

  1. Managers may be disorganized and therefore may not be willing to delegate duties.
  2. The manager may not want the subordinate the benefit as he/she may be selfish.
  3. Manager is afraid that subordinate may do much better than himself.
  4. Subordinate may not perform or be willing to accept that kind of job.


  • Maximum delegation throughout the organization result into disorganization. Decentralization is a situation where organization delegate power and decision making authority to lower level management.


Role of Decentralization in Organization

  1. It plays the role of keeping managers who are close to problems alert and responsible for making decision about those problems.
  2. It is also common where decisions are required on minor items.
  3. It is also suitable where the evaluation is more complex or dynamic

Span of Management

  1. This refers to the number of subordinate who report directly to a given manager. They are too commonly referred to as the wide span of management.
  2. Wide span of management is a situation in an organization where a manager has a large number of subordinators who are reporting to him/her.
  3. Narrow span of management is whereby managers have a few subordinates reporting to the managers this lead to all organizational structure.

Managing Line and Staff Position

  • Line position is those positions in the direct chain of command with specific authority, accomplishing the goals of an organization. Staff positions are positions outside the chain of command that are advisory, consultative or supportive in nature.

Organization Design

  • This is the overall configuration of position and interrelationship among positions within the organization.
  • Organization consist of a number of pieces put together in a certain way in different ways distinctive from each other in form and style because no too organization exactly alike how the various pieces are put together.

Task determination

  • It involves determining and defining the specific that are necessary to accomplish the planned objectives. They are grouped in logical pattern or structure.

Job Description

  • The activities are assigned to specific positions and people and delegating authority to those positions and people.


Staffing process involves the filling up of various positions with appropriate individuals. This involves selection, training and appraisal of the various individuals involved in the project.

Staffing involves:-

Selection and recruitment – this involves the following stages:-

Defining recruitment

  • This is the preparing job description and specification. It is also deciding on terms and conditions of employment.
  • Recruitment is the process of identifying the sources of prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.
  • Alteration of prospective employer or sourcing for personnel includes advertising using agencies and consultancy.
  • Selecting appropriate employees
  • This involves a sifting application, interviewing and testing them, assessing their potential, offering employment and preparing contracts of employment.
  • The overall aim of recruitment in selection process is to obtain at a minimum cost, the number of quality employees to satisfy the human resource needs in an organization.
  • Training and developing staff – this is the stage of teaching job skills. Teaching of general abilities to the management.
  • The efficiency of project depends directly on how well its members are trained. After employment, the staff is trained to do the job on which he has placed better.
  • Rules and regulations – these are provided and every staff in the project is expected to conform to them.
  • Renumeration – the project staff should be motivated as this encourages them to perform better.
  • Renumeration should be fair and provide maximum possible satisfaction to employees of the project.


  • This is the used of authority to channel the activities of the project on desired lines. The project will require continuous direction until completion or when the problem occurs during implementation. Project direction can be exercised by the project charter or at start up period. It can be given by project manager.


Project direction involves:-

  • Scope of directing and use – this ensures that available resources are channeled to meet the objectives efficiently.
  • Delegating responsibilities – it is concerned with the delegation of duties and responsibilities to the project staff and beneficiaries. Responsibilities arise out of assigning the work.
  • Discipline and productivity – all persons serving in the project should be disciplined. Discipline is obedience, energy, behaviour and respect shown by employees and it ensures productivity.
  • Supervision – directing is also concerned with supervision. The project manager oversees of the project activities and must ensure that the staff is performing accordingly to ensure project productivity. Manager has a continuous responsibility of guiding and motivating the subordinates to work with zeal. Confidence and enthusiasm thus directing includes communication, motivating and leading.
  • Controlling
  • This is the process of analyzing whether actions are being taken as planned and taking corrective actions to make these conform it planning. Planning and controlling cannot be separated. All activities the manager undertakes in attempting to ensure the actual resource conform to the planned results.

The Controlling Process Has the Following Steps:-

  1. Establishment of control standards – standards are criteria against that actual results are measured. They are established to guide the control process. They guide managers about how things are going on.
  2. Measurement of performance against standards – information on the project is gathered and analyzed and performance is measured against the standard.
  3. Comparing actual and standard performance – this involves finding out the extent of deviations and identifying the causes of such deviations so that corrective action can be taken. Performance should show how above and below the target variation is.
  4. Correction of deviations/remedial action – actions should be taken to maintain the desired control of the project, such controls include review of plans and goals and change on the basis of assignment of activities, techniques etc
  5. Supply and material control – these resources are controlled to meet project objectives,. It monitors the quality and quantity of resources before they are put in use. It involves the control of the process of transforming resources into products or services.
  6. It also monitors the quality and quantity of products or services as they leave an organization system.


Approaches to Control

1. Steering control/preliminary control/feed back control.This kind monitors the quality and quantity of various resources before they are put in use.

2. Concurrent control/screening control

  • This involves control of the process of transforming resources into products or services

3. Post action control

  • This monitors the quality and quantity of products and services as they leave an organization system.


  • Contracts are used to procure people, plant, equipment, materials and services.
  • Contracts are therefore fundamental to the management of almost all projects especially at the point of implementation.
  • The type of contracts should be selected only after consideration of the nature of the parties to the project, the project objectives and the equitable allocation of duties, responsibilities and risks.
  • Procurement is the process of acquisition of materials from external supplies.
  • Contracts are entered into to allow for ease in procurement.

Contractual issues: they include:-

  • When is the agreement contract?
  • Is a purchase order a contract?
  • What are conditions of contract?
  • Why are there different types of contracts and various terms of payment?

Contract Planning

    1. In a planning of a contract, the promoter needs to consider carefully the motive in employing a contractor. Promoters generally employ contractors for the following reasons:-
    2. To utilize the skills and expertise of contactors, managers, engineers, craftsmen, buyers etc for the limited duration of project.
    3. To have the benefit of contractors special resources i.e. licensed, process unique plants, materials in stock.
    4. To get contractors to take some of the risks of a project, usually the risk of planning to use people, plant, materials and subcontractors economically.
    5. To get contractors to obtain financial resources for a project and perhaps for operating it.
    6. To encourage the development of successful contractors
    7. To be free as promoters to concentrate on the objectives of projects, their subsequent use and other interests.

Number of contractors

  • The number and sequence of contractors for goods and services can vary form project to project.
  • Often a consultant or design contractors is employed just for the feasibility stage of a proposed project and a project management. Consultant to advice on risks and contract strategy.
  • For implementation, it may be appropriate for a promoter to employ a contractor for only a part of the project and one or more others for the remainder.
  • Alternatively, a project might be so large that more than one contractor is appropriate to share risks. For the equipment required for a new factory, one contractor might be employed to install equipments supplied by others. For example:-
  • A series of contractors can be employed in turn for construction work. For instance one for demolition work, another for a new foundation, the superstructure and building work. Others for designing and supplying equipment, installation etc each under different terms of contract.

Contract strategy

  • The department for a contract strategy for any project should be based on a thorough assessment of the choices available for the implementation and management of design and construction.

The Following Should Be Put Into Consideration

  • Project objectives
  • The organization system for design and implementation
  • Risk allocation
  • The terms of payment
  • The conditions of contract
  • The tendering procedure
  • The 1st step is to identify project objectives and the main constraints on implementation.

Management Contracting

  • Management contracting is an arrangement in which the promoter appoints an external organization to manage and coordinate the design and construction phase of a project. The management organization does not normally execute any of the permanent works which are packaged into a number of discrete contracts but may provide specified common user and service facilities.
  • The management contractor is appointed early in the project life and has considerable design.
  • One advantage is that work can be divided into two or more parallel simultaneous contracts offering reduced duration and risk sharing.
  • Time saving can arise from better control of design change improved building ability, keener prices due to greater competition etc

Risk Allocation

  • A prime function of the contract is to allocate risks. The identification and consideration of risk is a logical way to develop the organizational and contractual policies for any project.
  • Some of the uncertainties will remain whatever type of contract is adopted and tender must include contingency sum for them.

Terms of Payment

  • Price based: – the contractors in this tender submits lump sum and unit rule (measurements) price related.
  • Cost based: – cost reimbursable and target cost. The actual costs incurred by the contractor and reimbursed together with a fee for over beads and project.

Tendering Procedure

  • Several different procedures are used for selecting vendor, suppliers, tenders and contractors.


This is the open or select, involves a restricted number of bidders.

Two stages

  • A bidder is selected competitively early in the design process. The tender documents contain an outline specification or design and approximate quantities of the major value items. As design and planning proceeds, the final tender is developed from cost and price dates, supplied with the initial tender.
  • Negotiated

Usually with a single organization but may be up to three.

  • Continuity
  • This is where tendering competitively on the basis that bidders are informed that the successful party may be awarded continuation contracts for similar projects based on the original tender.
  • Serial
  • The bidder undertakes to enter a series of contracts usually to a minimum total value. it is a form of standing offer.
  • Term
  • The bidder undertakes a known type of work but without knowing the amount of the work for a fixed period.
  • In all cases prequalification procedure may be adopted.


  • Records are documents that are used for a variety of reasons during project implementation. They are written documents relating to the activities of the project that is being implemented.

Importance of Records in Project Implementation

  1. Used in project appraisal or evaluation
  2. Used to communicate feedback to donors
  3. Used for comparison purposes
  4. Used for accounting purposes
  5. Helps in budgeting
  6. Used for reference purposes

The Types of Records in Project Implementation Include:-

Project initiated document (PID) this document brings together all the information needed to start the project i.e.

  • Terms of reference
  • Acceptance criteria
  • Project organization and responsibilities
  • Project plan
  • First phase plan
  • Definition of business case
  • Risk assessment
  • End result description
  1. Financial record or books of account
  2. Reports and feedback
  3. Time schedules and event records
  4. Monitoring and periodic evaluation records
  5. Minutes records
  6. Personnel records
  7. Records of assets


Storage of Records

  • Project records need to be stored safely so that they can be protected and retrieved when necessary. They can be kept in lockable cupboards, shelves, filling cabinets, boxes or electronic storage devices.
  • A paper indexing system should be used to ensure easy retrieval of documents

Factors to Be Considered In Choosing Record Storage Equipment

  1. Safety provided by the equipment
  2. Financial status of the organization
  3. Available qualified staff to use the system
  4. Available space for storage
  5. Mobility and portability of the equipment
  6. Accessibility of the equipment to those who need to use
  7. Durability of the equipment


Challenges in Implementing Projects

  1. Insufficient support for the projects – this involves financial and managerial support which is likely to create delays.
  2. Poor planning – this involves poorly defining of project plans e.g having too much detailed work that is so relevant. This may affect the real project parameters.
  3. Poor management structure – formulation of poor organization structures with no clear distribution and allocation of responsibilities makes work unclear, these may lead to unmotivated staff and lack of commitment.
  4. Poor communication within the project and its players – i.e lack of formalized communication system between managers and teams
  5. Lack of effective monitoring and control systems – these may lead to lack of integration between project plans and progress reports.

Solutions for the Challenges

  1. Management should have focus on the results
  2. Ensure proper definition of intermediate objectives to control time, cost and quality
  3. Involving the project team members in planning to ensure all activities are carried out methodologically
  4. Adopt a proper organizational structure that is flexible with clearly defined set of objectives and responsibilities.
  5. Ensure smooth and accurate information flow through effective communication system
  6. Create a climate of cooperation and motivate the project team
  7. Ensure effective control of the project by monitoring and evaluation
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