PROFESSIONAL ETHICS NOTES

CHAPTER ONE

  • Ethics is a branch of philosophy that addresses the concepts of right and wrong or good and evil. …
  • Applied ethics addresses practical, everyday issues. …
  • Professional ethicsprovides us means to solve certain ethical problems related to a certain profession, in this case, health care.

Basics of ethics

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that addresses the concepts of right and wrong or good and evil. Ethics can also be called moral philosophy. Morality means usually a more practical approach to ethics, for example questions about the right and wrong in actions. Adjectives “moral” and “ethical” can be used fairly synonymously.

Applied ethics addresses practical, everyday issues. It is usually normative and thus aims to find the best possible answers to questions like: “Is this act or policy right or wrong?” Of course, life is often so complicated that simple answers cannot be provided. Then applied ethics can serve as a tool for clarifying the issue and  for helping decision-making and account for these decisions even if there is no absolute right answer to be found.

Professional ethics provides us means to solve certain ethical problems related to a certain profession, in this case, health care. Professional ethics is usually presented as guidelines and rules, but it can be demanding to apply these to complex situations, that call for sensitivity to circumstances and the individuals in question. Thus, professional ethics cannot be only about abiding by the rules, but constant awareness to the rights and needs of the clients or patients, and critical thinking in the cross-fire of ethics, rules, conventions and difficulties of social interaction.

Being a professional

Acquiring a professional role in health care is important from the point of view of ethics. A professional is committed to the principles and aims of the work and is aware of her own limitations and values. The most important questions in acquiring high ethical standards in professional work are: 1) Why is the work being done?

2) What are the necessary components of high quality? and

3) What is the professional attitude? These questions concerning ‘good work’ can be summarized in the 3 E’s: excellence, ethics and engagement.

Another way of looking at the professional working role is to ask what the virtues of a high-grade professional worker are. Virtues mean acquired capabilities that enable excellence in the practice according to its objectives, e.g. wisdom, justice, self control and courage.

Why and how?

Aims, principles and values direct the work, but it is also important to think about its functionality and pragmatic dimensions. How are the aims of the work realized in the best way? And how is this done without neglecting the key principles and values of the work? Pragmatism is not only about finding the best solution for some concrete problem at hand, but also about connecting aims with means. If a certain procedure is fast and efficient, but violates a patient’s autonomy and causes distress, it is not pragmatic, considering not only the immediate task but the idea of producing good care.

It is a common mistake to think that professionalism is based only on personal competence of a worker. The fact is that maintaining a high quality of work requires a lot more. Key factors are continuing education, professional pride and good management. It is also essential that there is a functioning work society and group dynamics with reasonable workload and reasonable resources. Maintaining a high level of professionalism is a matter of cooperation in the work society, but also a responsibility of the management and leaders.

Professional attitude

What is professional attitude? How can you obtain it? Can you choose your attitude, can you change it, or can you develop it? Does your professional attitude change during your career?

Work attitude means continuous evaluations and reactions towards one’s work environment: co-workers, patients, work society, tasks, and more. Building professional attitude can be described as an adjustment process that begins by understanding what it means to be a professional and how a professional should relate and react to her work environment. Health care professionals are in a position which they can use to do good or harm depending on their work attitude. That is why ethical awareness is an integral part of professional attitude and why it is necessary to take time for reflection-on-action.

One key ability in being a professional is a certain degree of value neutrality. This means that the principles that guide the work should be always derived from the main purposes of the work. Any other aims, ideologies, personal values, personal gain or religious beliefs should be omitted from the professional role.

Applying ethics to professional work

During the past 10 years there has been a strong movement towards evidence-based practice especially in the health care sector. This means that decisions should be based on research findings, expertise of the health care provider, patient’s opinions, views, situation and resources in the unit. Evidence-based health care is not a “cookbook” practice, and the emphasis is still on the individualized care of the patient and/or the client.

When approaching or solving ethical problems, we need to make choices on the basis of our beliefs and feelings about what is fundamentally good or right. However, applying ethics to clinical work does not mean that you have to reflect only on your own thoughts and experiences and discuss with your colleagues. Applying ethics to work also demands that we are aware of the current study results of our own working field and consider the ethical problems that we are dealing with.

Three brief examples are described below to remind you that there are a lot of research findings which can be used to discuss, to reflect on and to argue ethical dilemmas from different perspectives at clinical work. More in-depth information can be found from the references.

CORE LIVING VALUES

This is standard of living and behavior expected of a person.  These are 12 core values;

  1. Cooperation- ability to work as a team towards a common purpose. It is characterized by helping one another since all have the same purpose .It strengthens relationship and foster peace.
  2. Simplicity-is the ability to be straightforward, clear or pain. It makes one to be approachable and to be understood by others.
  3. Tolerance-is the ability to put up with others or to put up with situation.  A lot of patience is needed before making any decision or taking action.
  4. Respect- is the ability to treat other people with esteem and appreciation. This is a situation where there is calm and quaintness of mind peaceful situation guarantees security harmony stability and cooperation.
  5. Freedom-is the ability to have liberty and not to live under restriction. Every human being needs freedom to express themselves when this is granted and guided then is bound to be harmonies existence.
  6. Unity- is a situation where people decide to work together.
  7. Love- is a warm affection for some are something one may show a deep concern for others. Love does not expert rewards and even evil can be neutralized by love. Love helps individual to be patient tolerant and kind.1st Corinthians 13
  8. Honesty- is being upright and dealing fairly with other people an honest person cannot be corrupted and is reliable. Striving to be honest minimize conflict in a work place.

     SOCIAL CULTURAL BENEFITS

  1. It helps choose good and reliable friends.
  2. Enables us resist negative peer pressure.
  3. Promotes healthy relationships within the community.
  4. Enables us appreciate other people and relate well.
  5. Good time management is achieved by use of leisure time well properly.
  6. We become aware of risky behaviors and try to avoid them.
  7. The society values are classified thus helping us adapt meaningful values while avoiding those that put people at risk of HIV/AIDs.
  8. Helps us achieve national cohesion.
  9. Helps us build very strong character.

    HEALTH BENEFIT

  1. Helps people to take responsibility for their own and others health
  2. Since few people are likely to be sick this will lessen the strain on health facilities and enhance productivity.
  3. A person is well adjusted and this contributes to the general wellbeing.
  4. Disease such as HIV/AIDs, STI’S are parented and controlled.
  5. Helps people avoid alcohol and drug abuse hence controlling and preventing diseases that accompany these vices.

ECONOMIC BENEFITS

  1. The strain on health facilities is reduced hence there are more resources for investment.
  2. Productivity improves hence there is a strong and energetic labor force.
  3. People are able to discover there strength potential and hidden talents and exploit them positively.
  4. Deliberate destruction of properly and phenomena often associated with strikes or riots are reduced and hence people are able to channel the money that would have been used for repairs into other.

BENEFITS OF LIFESKILLS EDUCATION

Life skills education is designed to help an individual to develop in totality. In particular it enables an individual to;

  1. To know more about themselves and appreciates themselves
  2. It enables us to behave responsibly.
  3. It enables one to know more about people living around them hence help address issues of national cohesion I our country.
  4. It enhance an individual self esteem and makes one more assertive in relationship and with their peers and adults.
  5. Be more logical in making decision and choices

BENEFITS OF AN INDIVIDUAL TO THE SOCIETY

This benefits can be categorized into 4;

  1. EDUCATIONAL BENEFITS
  2. Reduction in strikes and riots in schools resulting from improved communication among the students and the administration .
  3. General improvement  of discipline in schools as learners avoid risking behaviors.
  4. Cases of absentism and bullying are minimized among learners.
  5. The relationship among various people in a school set up are strengthened.
  6. A good learning environment is created leading to improvement in performance.
  7. Desirable behavior is achieved as learners avoid risky behavior.

2. Respect-one should be able to appreciate good qualities in others or achievement

3. Humility-one should not think that they are not us important as other people humility is appreciating that people around you are as important as you are.

 APPRECATING OF ONE SELF AS A BIG BEING

  • Physical appearance- loving ourselves unconditionally means accepting all of the realities about ourselves. A good place to start with is our body and appearance. to increase our self-acceptance and self-worthy examine each part of your body and their function. This makes us appreciate the details of the way we are created.
  • Do we feel disgusted at certain normal body function or products such as bodily fluid or waste? If so we do not accept all our normal healthy parts and functions .try to understand how these basic functions works and how important they are to our health and survival.
  • Social aspect- ones social world begins within the family it progresses towards the outside world through relationship in schools and in the most important people to shape our lives for the future.
  • Emotional Aspect-due to changes (increasing in homones ) emotions of addolescences emotions tend to be unstable atimes . one tends to hide their emotions not wanting anyone to see how he or she feels. Some of the ways of of showing emotions without knowing include;
  • Anger- This is expressed as stomming out or diurislumming or sudden outburst at someone or something
  • Fear, worries and anxiety- one spend a lot of time worrying about physical appearance school and social situation . this anxiety include what others thing about the way we dress the way we act what and how we look and so on.
  • Freedom – for most establishing sense of indepence is an important part of emotional transition out of childhood as its is establishing a sense of identity . during adolescence the youth tend to move away from the dependency that is common in childhood towards independence that is common in adult hood.
  • Making ones own decision – this means being able to select a sensible course of action without assistance. this is an important cabapility in a modern society where one is forced to become an independent decision make at an early age.
  • Values and beliefs-our parents and religion pass on to us values and beliefs that help us live peacefully with people around us. This values and beliefs assists us to e sober a midsts any stage of life. They have thoughts us to be patients, loving , respectful etc. and that we can make it in life no matter the situation that we are in life.
  • Gifts and talents- some can be gifted in academic performance and social activities e.g drama, music, sports, public speaking and creative activities. Such as arts one can develop new ideas, powerful performance, great leadership or influence.

 

 CHAPTER TWO

 SELF ESTEEM

Is the opinion of an individual about himself /herself and appreciate of their work and importance.

It depends on; Attitude, and values of oneself .It also depend on either factors such as the purpose of life. Independence thee place potential success, strength and weaknesses. Social status and one relates to others, it is achieved through experience of personal success and it facilitates and individual to cope with challenges when they arise.

SIGNS OF HIGH SELF ESTEEM

  1. Having internal control of oneself
  2. Taking care of yourself physically, mentally, emotionally and spirit
  3. Maintaining a balance between extreme of thought, feeling and behaviours and when out of balance taking actions to correct
  4. Learning from mistakes and admitting them and being able to forgive self and others
  5. Taking responsibility for your actions and reactions and not projecting or passing blame onto others.
  6. They know their fights.
  7. They demonstrates self-respect, self-confidence and self-acceptance
  8. Are assertive
  9. Communicate effectively
  10. They make friends easily.
  11. They are able to make good decision.
  12. Are less likely to be violence
  13. Feeling warm and loving towards yourself

SIGNS OF LOW SELF ESTEEM

  • This often take the form of self fortune.One see the action as imperfecting unforgiving imperfection as permanent and believes that its impossible to improve
  • Fear and uncertainity. The sign of non confident people as fear. Some of the fears are, setting others, becoming ill, making mistakes, being poor and not living upto other peoples´ exepectations, people who are gossiping and their secrets being known, people fear not being liked, being upnormal and having permanent alterminal illness being hurt.Fear any kind of responsibility, fear change.
  • Self shame- keeping secret about yourself which the makes you feel awful disgusting wired, ugly or unworthy.
  • They have unforgiving nd unrealistic expectation of perfection in others.
  • Luck of trust. When you are isolated it is easy to believe you have monopoly of given emotion or situation. When you never engage other honestly. Its hard for them to open their hearts for you.
  • A focus on your perceived limits .This replaces the focus on the potential and the possibility for growth and improvement. You rarely welcome or enjoy new experiences and also remain in the same fearful state wondering why you never achieved what you wanted.
  • Misplaced humility. That’s not regarding yourself as equal to others but act less than they are.
  • Feeling constantly depressed. Indulging in self pity and negative thoughts of your past without any action particularly to escape responsibility to seek attention or control/punish other often done in negative way.
  • Invaliding This involve over estimating the work of others and putting on a higher ladder.

OBSTACLES TO POSITIVE SELF ESTEEM.

  1. Negative emotions.
  2. Late development in physical appearance.
  3. Adolescence who do not consider themselves physically attractive.
  4. Background, family or social .Those who come from poor families and lack economic resource.
  5. Parental styles which predominant indifferent or execcively authoritative.
  6. Togetherness, illness.
  7. Grieving for a long time after loosing a loved one this may result to poor academic performance and poor social relation.
  8. Making poor decisions.
  9. Inability to negotiate while in a dispute caused conflict thus makes make one feel helpless.
  10. Disagreement in relationship.
  11. Drug and alcohol addictions.

STEPS IN DEVELOPING SELF ESTEEM.

  • Self-identity refers to self-awareness of oneself. It includes having self-assessment such as personality attributes, knowledge of one skill and abilities, hobbies and awareness of ones ‘physical attributes.
  • Analyze feelings of ones´ appearance abilities limitations beliefs and value system.
  • Access self-worth, self-worthless is an overall measure of how much we value our self s and gives priority to our needs and happiness.Ourselfs worth is measure of our unconditional self-love
  • Self-acceptance. This is a way o accepting the parts of yourself that you may feel bad about.
  • Identify a social support system. A network of relatives and friends who provide positive feed back and gives one emotional support through compliments of success understanding you e.t.c.
  • Dividing ones priorities and aspects to work an to enhance self esteem.

EFFECTS OF HIGH SELF ESTEEM.

  1. Enhance positive self-image.
  2. Enhance ability to interact with others.
  3. Ability to resist negative peer pressure.
  4. Development of self confident.
  5. Enhanced academic achievement.
  6. Effect of low self esteem.

EFFECTS OF LOW SELF ESTEEM

  • Vulnerability to risky behaviours i.e involves in irresponsible sexual behavior or drug abuse.
  • Recruitment into dangerous gangs
  • Self pity
  • Identity crisis
  • Poor academic performance
  • Reduce interactaction with others

LIVING VALUES THAT ENHANCE SELF ESTEEM

  • Love
  • Honesty
  • Simplicity
  • Respect
  • Humility
  • Self identity
  • Analyze feelings
  • Self acceptance
  • Social support system

 

CHAPTER THREE

STRESS MANAGEMENT

Stress –A difficult condition that causes discomfort in one’s life. It leads to physical mental emotional and spiritual strain. It is a normal and a natural reaction if handled properly .It can be viewed as positive or negative depending on its effect.

TYPES OF STRESS

They are two types of stress experienced at different levels;

  1. EUSRESS
  2. Its normal and natural stress which everyone experiences
  3. Its positive or useful stress because it makes us go on with life
  4. It helps us to dress decently
  5. Eat a balanced diet
  6. Being motivated to do even hard task and meat our goals in life and deadline
  7. Helps us to improve on personal development
  8. Study manage time will invest and also move to new places

 

  1. DISTRESS

Its dangerous stress where somebody needs help from teachers, parents and professional counselor’s. If it goes higher levels its called hyper stress .It may require one to a medical doctor that is a psychianist. It’s dangerous and it can lead one to commit suicide.

CAUSES OF STRESS

Stress can be caused by factors such as;

  1. Transition- because it cause anxiety and fear
  2. Broken relationship e. boy, girl, relationship and friends
  3. Difficult family live and poverty where a family cannot meet heir basic needs like food ,shelter, fees , family breakups caused by divorce reparation , death of parents and domestic violence.
  4. Chronic and serious illness i.e. diabeties cancer, HIV/AIDs or injury of any part of the body.
  5. Sudden change of financial resources e.g lose of a job retrenchment
  6. Examination pressure demanding curriculum
  7. Death of loved ones i.e close friend or a relation
  8. Poor interpersonal relationship e.g. between parents and children teachers and student tribal conflict.
  9. Changes during adolescence
  10. Peer pressure
  11. Orphan hood
  12. Physical and emotion abuse
  13. Conflict of interest

EFFECTS OF STRESS

NEGATIVE EFFECT OF STRESS;

  1. Health

Stress cause health problems such as hypertensim; stomach ulcers, chronic headache, back chest, and joint pain lost of sexual desire (low libido) ,heart failure (heart attack) , obesity due to too much weight gain caused by high appetite and oversleeping.

Lack of sleep- sleeplessness/ insomnia

Fatigue and lack of energy (lethargy)

Anemia Dizziness

Constipation or indigestion causing stomach upset

Educational

  1. It affects ones performance in education
  2. Lack of school is major causes of stress
  3. Poor decision making- one may become lazy and not couple assignment
  4. Loose interest in studies and fear exams
  5. Oversleeping
  6. Drop out school
  1. SOCIAL

Stress makes one develop poor interpersonal relationship with the opposite sex one becomes lonely and antisocial with the friends .It may make one become violent or aggressive negative peer influence can lead to get involved in alcohol , drug abuse sexual immorality and crimes like theft.

  1. Psychological

These are mental and emotional disturbance which are reflected in a person behavior are a result of stress and it includes anger, self pity, anxiety, worry, irritability, nervousness, rebellious, violent, mood swings, withdrawal (not associating with others) fear, low self-esteem helplessness or lack of interest in daily activities.

  1. Career

Due to above health and psychological effect stress one may lose interest in working.

Stress can also cause one to withdraw from others and one does not cooperate at workplace and will always be quarrelling.

Also bring habit like abusing alcohols and which makes one not to perform his duties properly since stress affect ones time management at skills the person may be untidy and not punctual at works and may eventually lose their jobs.

 COPING WITH STRESS

Common ways of dealing with stress;

  1. Identity the cause or origin of stress.

This is important because different peoples are stressed by some things that look and and natural to others do not push yourself beyond what you can manage.

  1. Recognize the onset of stress.

This can be known by symptoms of stress likes lack appetite, restless, lack of sleep etc.

  1. Engaging in physical exercises

This can be like games and sport working and joking though however one should not do exercise which strain them physically or Couse injury.

  1. Set achievable or realistic goal which will not stain your health and abilities
  2. Having open and free communication parent’s sibling, teachers and talking to a trusted friend.
  3. Good time management-This is because disorganization and lack of good planning can cause stress one should prioritize issues from the most important ones.
  4. Engage in positive leisure activities

8. Being assertive- expressing ones feeling openly and clearly knowing ones strength.

9. Choosing and keeping good friends.- A friends should be trusted be but caution should be taken because some of them can influence one negatively leading to stress.

10. Maturing personal values- this are like humility patience self-control.

11. By making national decision- by identifying the causes of stress or problems looking for a solution and considering the possible consequences of any action or decision made.

12. By laughing or having absence of honor helps one reduce stress not taking too seriously.

13. By improving self-awareness skills.

14. One should have an organized religious life, by prayer meditation and reading God word.

15. Having enough sleep relaxation a balanced diet and water is useful in reducing stress.

LIVING VALUES 

  • Tolerance
  • Simplicity
  • Happiness

PERSONAL STRESS ASSESSMENT

COPING WITH EMOTIONS

  • Emotions refer to strong inner instinctive feelings of person maybe due to pleasant or unpleasant experience in an individual. For example love and joy are pleasant emotions while fear and despair are unpleasant emotions.
  • Emotions are expression of our subconscious sometimes we can identify the cause of a particular feeling and a times we cannot.

Some emotions are deep or intense while others are shallow

 TYPES OF EMOTIONS

POSITIVE

  1. joy
  2. excitement
  3. love
  4. happiness
  5. kindness
  6. hope
  7. patience

NEGATIVE

  1. hunger
  2. sadness
  3. fear
  4. anxiety
  5. sorrow
  6. jealousy
  7. guilt
  8. panic

MIXED EMOTIONS

  1. fear
  2. joy
  3. disgust
  4. happiness

EXPRESSIONS ANDRESPINDING TO EMOTIONS

There are various factors that influence expression and response to emotions such as;

  • Environment
  • Family up bringing
  • social cultural where some cultures view me superior and demand that they are aggressive and this may make the women antisocial or have

CHAPTER FOUR

SELF ASSESSMENT TOOL ON EMOTIONS

Emotions can be controlled if well managed this lead to health individual and buildup of story relationship.

The following are ways of managing emotions;

  • Investigate the origin / causes of emotions one is experiencing
  • Try to clearly understand the emotions
  • Make proper and sober decisions when expressing emotions
  • Exercise self-control
  • Self-destruction i.e. do not dwell on one issue for long that vary activities like doing exercises keeping busy or resting or taking short walks
  • Forgiving the person who has hurt or offended you
  • Crying is a healthy therapy for example when hurt and should not been seen as weakness
  • Analyze the consequences of the action that you are going to do
  • Delaying action sometimes one can evaluate the situation first and act on it later

  FRIENDSHIP FORMATION AND MAINTAINANCE

A friend is a person when somebody likes a lot and knows well for a time but not a member of a family. He is also referred to as a companion i.e person you are in a relationship with

  • This is somebody one can trust with some interests , career , socialize together give one another support and helps in times of need
  • Friendship is a relationship of people who like and value one another which may also affect their academic performance. In such culture men do not express inner feeling like sadness openly because it will be seen as a weakness
  • If women are not educated they tend to become inferior and unable to express their feeling appropriately.
  • Gender difference- girls are more often and emotional than boys, girls express more love and kindness , cry more easily laugh more and disclose their inner feelings to themselves . This may be partly e due to their social roles as mothers and due to hormonal differences.

  WAYS OF COPING WITH EMOTIONS

The following proper way expressing positive and negative emotions;

  • Not holding emotions back or battling them up (repressing) instead express them but by dispensing them
  • By knowing that its normal and natural to experience positive and negative emotions
  • Through confronting the person who has offended you without hiding your heart feeling disappointment, hunger, or disgust
  • Accepting the reality without denial especially when you know that you cannot change
  • Not projecting or passing blame for a problem to another person
  • Being able to communicate effectively without covering up emotions

POSITIVE INFLUENCE OF FRIENDS AND FRIENDSHIP

Friends do things together share ideas and loyal to one another identifies each other and give each other emotional support

The following are some benefits of influences of friends and friendship;

  • A friend is cautioned by the others to avoid irresponsible harmful behavior like alcohol drug and substance abuse premarital sex and involvement in act
  • In schools friend study together and help improve their academic performance
  • Friends share spend their leisure time properly e.g. in sports, voluntary community work
  • Friends who are in the same religion group help to up life each other morally and spiritual growth
  • Friendship between teachers and student is beneficial because it assists the learners to explore their talents, abilities and potential leading to a better performance

LIFE SKILL THAT ENHANCES POSITIVE FRIENDSHIP

  1. Self esteem
  2. Copping with emotions
  3. Copping with stress
  4. Assertiveness- forms decision making
  5. Empathy –a friend feel for the others problem
  6. Effective communication.
  7. Negotiation skills.
  8. Effective decision making

LIVING VALUES THAT ENHANCE POSITIVE FRIENDSHIP

  1. Love
  2. Tolerance
  3. Honesty
  4. Co-operative
  5. Responsibility
  6. Unity
  7. Peace
  8. Freedom
  9. Respect
  10. Simplicity

FRIENDSHIP FORMATION

THE FOLLOWING ARE FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTETO FRIENSHIP FORMATION

  1. Self-confidence- people who are confident and have high self-esteem are social and make more friends easily the confident people are not easily influenced negatively. They are concern and care for their friends during good and times. they appreciate themselves and diorite other people weaknesses and accept construction criticism
  2. Values and virtues- like love tolerance, honesty co-operation integrity and responsibility contribute to friendship formation . the opposite of values which is vices like pride, dishonest, and greed make one not have friends.
  3. Common interests- this includes things that bring people together like same religion , beliefs sports dramas music studying together and social works.
  4. Beliefs- is a feeling that something exist or its live
  5. Love – is the most important value in friendship . a friend with true love is patient ,kind , not jealousy, is ready to forgive , doesn’t hold crashes. A person who loves another is ready to stand by him in bad or good times . love creates trust and hope.

Boys and girls are special friends and there is more intimate that is they share deep secrets and they are attracted to each other sexually this type of love is called EROS.

Friends express a kind of love called PHILEQ. Where they express affection, likeness, warm respect and a strong attachment to each other.

  1. Availability- friends should be available for each other because they are companions.
  2. Similar value system- this are principles that one cherishes and like and hence enhances friendship.
  3. Respect

    TYPES OF INTER-PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP

They are many types of inter-personal relationship some of them are;

  1. Family relationships.
  2. Teacher-learner relationships
  3. Consulter-client relationships
  4. Employer –employee relationships
  5. Peer-peer relationships
  6. Doctor-patient relationship

BENEFITS OF GOOD INTER-PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP

  1. Promotes peace and harmony
  2. Improve self confidence
  3. They enhance the physical and psychological wellbeing of an individual
  4. Leads to enhance individual productivity
  5. Reduces intertribal conflict hence creativity stability in a country

LIVING VALUES THAT ENHANCE INTER-PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS

  1. Love
  2. Tolerance
  3. Honesty
  4. Co-operation
  5. Integrity
  6. Peace

EMPATHY

This is the ability to understand how a person feels about problems they have and be able to assist the where possible.

Its feeling the pain of the other person and assisting the person to overcome the pain.

SYMPATHY

This is shared feeling.

One will experience feeling as if they were the sufferer.

Its important to note that this should be avoided as one may share the plight but be unable to help other

There are two levels of empathy namely;

  1. Affective level-this is where one feels with person.
  2. Cognitive- this is where one observe and analyses the situation so that you can facilitate the necessary assistance

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EMPATHY AND SYMPATHY

  1. Empathy is the ability to put yourself in other people position while sympathy is a feeling for another person where you get emotionally affected by the other person experience or feelings.
  2. In empathy you will identify with the other person and at the same time you will maintain distance while in sympathy it will be a share suffering.

SITUATION THAT REQUIRES NEGOTIATION

  • Peer pressure- negotiation skills is towards resisting negative peer pressure. Most young people like to be left out by their peer

Some are lured into bad habits like smoking, taking alcohol and engaging into premarital sex. However they need to be reassured that it will be okay for them to stand out from the others and be positively different.

  • Risky situation- e.g. abortion when drunk ,being in a lonely place . in such cases one should be encouraged to live this risky situations and this is done through negotiation
  • Drugs- many young people are initiated into drugs by their peers sometime they may fear going against their friends or they may not want to be different . they need to be negotiated with to come out of such traps.
  • Negation in a business – this is a daily activity in our lives find one has to negotiate for a better price
  • Negotiation for ones right –sometimes using threats or demands for one rights does not work. One can try one work it out through negotiation so if you threatens
  • Harmful traditional practices e.g. FGM, wife inheritance, early marriage

SITUATION THAT CALLS FOR ASSERTIVE RESPONSE

  • Harassment
  • Abuse of any form
  • Peer pressure
  • Neglect
  • Threats
  • Harmful cultural practices
  • Unlawful things

OBSTACLES TO RESPOND ASSERTIVELY

  • Threats
  • Social cultural factors
  • Peer pressure

NEGOTIATION SKILLS

To negotiate- this refers to discussions between people trying to reach an agreement over a dispute. It is peaceful and the main question is what we can do about this issue between me and you.

NEGOTIATION PROCESS

In order for any negotiation to be successful the following steps must be taken

  • Identification of the issue of concern.- This is the key to conflict resolution
  • Identify the parties involved this is to ensure that only the concerned people are involved
  • Presentation of the ideas- the concerned parts will present their ideas
  • Consensus building

   ASSERTIVENESS

  • This is expression of ones feeling in a sincere and open without hurting the other person.
  • One stand up for what they want without hurting other peoples feeling

PASSIVENESS

  • This is the habit where one gives in to the will of others. Every time is done and decide by other and then this person will follow.

AGRESSIVENESS

Is a habit where a person forcefully demands what he or she wants and does not care or respect other people’s feelings

CHARACTERISTICS OF A PASSIVE PERSON

  • Low self esteem
  • Lack competence
  • They are submissive
  • They are shy
  • They speak in soft and woozy voices
  • They are fearfully and would hide their faces

 CHARACTERISTIS OF AGGRESSIVE PERSON

  • He shouts , demands and don’t listen to the others
  • He will point fingers at the others
  • He be little’s others
  • He threat hens others

SITUATION THAT CALL FOR EMPATHY

  • Gender roles- men can help women in household duties e.g. cooking, fetching water. The women can also can also help in taking care of the family when men are away and also taking care of their families.
  • Cultural diversities – cultures differ from one community to another. Help our people and educate them on cultural diversities can affect them negatively
  • Dealing with people with special needs e.g. dressing them up, feed them, push their wheel chair
  • Trauma cares- are people who are undergone difficult situation i.e. rape, fire disaster, election violence ,accident, survivors, people abusing
  • People abusing drug- this people needs to be helped to come out this vise
  • People living with HIV/AIDs – this people need to be reassured the they can live on and carry out their normal duties

WAYS OF EXPRESSING EMPATHY

  • Provide material support for people with hunger, starvation, idps etc.
  • Support to disaster survivors and the fire tragedies
  • We should offer guidance to the traumatiser people
  • Spiritual support

LIVING VALUES ASSOCIATED WITH NEGOTIATION SKILLS

  1. Respect –there must be respect for you and other people feeling there is also a need for one to value the contribution of other in the negotiation of others.
  2. Co-operation –since negotiation involves more than one party there must be a willingness to cooperate and work out the solution with others. Lack of cooperation is likely to delay the all process
  3. Responsibility –responsibility is accepting the consequences of once actions or deeds. All sides involved in negation must be willing to contribute positively and take responsibility of the outcome.
  4. Humility –this is a quality of not thinking that you’re better than others. On the negotiation table must regard the others as equal partners and this will strengthens the interpersonal relationship. In that people will be able to interact and value others despite their difference.
  5. Integrity- if one reliable and can be depended upon he or she can successfully negotiate with others.

 

CHAPTER FIVE

NON VIOLENT CONFLICT RESOLUTION

  • A conflict is a disagreement or a difference between two or more people. It can lead to inability for the two to relate well. It can also be internal especially a person has two opposing feelings about an issue.
  • We can’t avoid conflict in our lives .However we have a choice on how to respond when we are in a conflict.
  • When we use violence the conflicts becomes destructive but when we use nonviolent approaches we discover new ways of relating with each other
  • Nonviolent conflict resolution refers in the process of setting a dispute when it occurs in a peaceful manner.

TYPES OF CONFLICT

INTRA-Personal

It’s a conflict within one self. It may arise when one has feeling about an idea. This happens especially when one is making choices.

INTERPERSONAL

Conflict  between two people over variety of reasons e.g. politics, social, economic or religious.

COMMUNITY CONFLICT INTERTRIBAL

This may be between two or more communities differing over issue. E.g. a pastoral communities fighting over a water source also it maybe due to political differences

NATIONAL CONFLICT

It occurs where there is conflict between two states may cause by boundary disputes resulting in violent conflict if left unchecked.

Likewise in equitable distribution of national resources can also cause conflict

GROUP VS STATE

They occur between a group of people and the state the group can be a cult, act or hawkers or even a trade union.

SITUATION LEADING TO CONFLICT

  1. Bullying- of any kind e.g. kicking, writing etc. it is dangerous and can cause depression
  2. Contacting HIV/AIDs- upon learning of contracting HIV/AIDs a person may have conflicts within himself and may extend this to others and he/she is very sensitive over small issues.
  3. Negative ethnicity- negative thoughts about a certain ethnic group may bring conflict in a national such as Kenya has so many clans talking ill about it

WAYS OF OVERCOMING BARRIERS

  1. Being patient
  2. Empathy
  3. Love
  4. Self-control
  5. Respect for others
  6. Effective communication and clarify issues
  7. Assertiveness

CONFLICT RESOLUTION

  1. Mediation

It involves a person acting as a vow between conflicting people/ group the two parties must be willing to listen and to come up with ideas that may help to settle their disagreement

  1. Arbitration

Refers to situation where a disagreement is solved by neutral person. The person selected to solve the issue he is called ABITRATOR. He listens to both sides and helps them to get a solution.it is cheaper

BARRIERS TO NONVIOLENT CONFLICTS RESOLUTIONS

  1. Pride

People who regard themselves as highly compared to others are barriers. Since they can’t bring themselves down to everyone’s level

  1. Envy

People who envy others may not give them chance to solve issues amicably.

  1. Prejudice

Is a situation whereby some people may have a positive or a low opinion about others and they cant accept there contribution

  1. Ignorance

People who are ignorant can lead to conflicts

  1. Peer pressure

Negative peer pressure may push one not to the nonviolence ways of resolving conflict.

  1. Lack of communication

If there is no communication between the conflicting groups they may not understand each other intensions and the conflicts will arise

 

CHAPTER SIX

EFFECTIVE DECISION MAKING

  • Decisions making is a choice that one makes after thinking and choose among many alternatives
  • It is part of the problem solving process that deals with selecting a course of action from among two or more options

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE DECISION MAKING

  • Experience- when one has enough knowledge about something he will make sound decision since the knowledge he or she has will guide
  • Drug and substance abuse- when one is under the influences of drugs he or she cannot make sound decisions since his mind is not stable
  • Family background- those from well off background are not going to lead school unlike those from poor backgrounds
  • Social life- people have socialize can influence our decisions positively or negatively
  • Religion- ones religious can influence decision making
  • Emotions- when one is emotionally unstable he or she is likely to make poor decisions

CONSEQUENCES OF NOT MAKING GOOD DECISIONS

  • Contracting HIV and AIDs or other health related diseases i.e. STI and one becomes stressed
  • Leads to legal instatement i.e. a bad decisions such as stealing can make one live in jail
  • It can lead to death
  • Emotional / cytological
  • Spiritual- one should choose to worship in a religion that does not deprive him/ his joy

VALUES THAT ENHANCE EFFECTIVE DECISION MAKING

  • Integrity- one should be morally upright and principled when making decisions to avoid being manipulated by other people decisions
  • Responsible- one should be responsible of the decision they make when choosing and keeping friends
  • Honest- one should learn to be true to themselves as this will make others to respect us.
  • Freedom- one should be free to make choices and decisions without doubt

DECISION MAKING INSTITUTIONS

  • Church
  • Schools/ college-career choices, diseases
  • Council of elders
  • Guidance and counseling centers
  • The courts
  • The family

 

CHAPTER SEVEN

ASSIGMENT  HIV/AIDs

HIV- stands for human immune deficiency virus .It is the virus that causes AIDs. It enters the body through the mucous membrane or through a broken skin.

The virus ones inside the body it attacks the body defense cells. All the body fluids that is blood, semen, and vaginal secretion can contract HIV.

AIDs- means acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

HIV causes AIDs through progressive destruction of the body defense system after infection the body defense is progressively weakened making it liable to get common infections which also reoccur due to the inability of the body to defend its cell.

WAYS OF TRANSMITTING HIV/AIDs

  • Sexual intercourse with an infected person
  • Sharing sharp objects with an infected person
  • Transfusion of blood from an infected person
  • During birth
  • Breast milk to a kid
  • Accidents
  • Wife inheritance from an infected person
  • Deep kissing with an infected person

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF AIDS

  • Loss of body weight
  • Loss of hair
  • Excessive sweating
  • Enlargement of glands
  • Persistent coughing
  • Cancer of blood vessels
  • Never/rough skins
  • Fungal skin infections
  • High fever
  • Frequent diarrhea

WAYS OF PREVENTING

  • Abstain from irresponsible sexual behaviors
  • Be faithful to your partner
  • Avoid sharing sharp objects
  • Avoid wife inheritance
  • Avoid kissing deeply

FACTORS WHICH LEAD TO SPREAD OF HIV/AIDs

  • Ignorance
  • Misuse of drug and substance
  • Fear of testing
  • Lack of sex education
  • Poverty
  • High risk taking activity of men
  • Urbanization
  • Idleness among unemployed youths

THINGS THAT CAN MAKE ONE FUNCTION IN LIFE

Here, then, are 10 tips to help you start improving your life:

  • Be grateful for what you have. When you stop to remember what you have instead of worrying about what you may not be getting, it changes your perspective for the better.
  • Start your day the night before. The most successful people I know end their workday by making a list of what they have to do the following day or two ahead. This allows the subconscious to work on things while you sleep.
  • Be ready to grow up. Adults have the ability to learn to delay gratification, but we also have a choice as to how to behave when things don’t go our way. If you remember to take the high road, you’ll end up where you want to be.
  • Drop the attitude. If you think the world owes you a living, you might want to reevaluate your position. It is quite possible that, by feeling entitled, you are pushing away things and people you might like.
  • Don’t ignore your emotions, but remember that feelings aren’t facts. Emotions need to be honored—they don’t have to be justified—but just because you have a feeling doesn’t mean that you are right.
  • Watch out for negative thinking. Sometimes we get into negative feedback loops and don’t even know it. If thoughts of being helpless and hopeless continue to enter your mind, you might just need to take a nap or perhaps talk with someone who can help.
  • Set up and stick to a routine. We are creatures of habit; and good habits, such as getting regular exercise, make us feel better. Maintaining good habits also helps us feel that we have some control over our lives. Just do it.
  • Drop your resentments. We all have them. Whether they are toward our parents, partners, or peers, resentments take up too much psychic space to allow us to function properly. By choosing to drop them, you will make your life much lighter. But the hardest part is making the decision to let your resentments go.
  • Know who you really are, and learn to honor yourself. We all fake it from time to time and once in a while, this can be a good thing, but never compromise your personal values and always strive to be your best self.
  • Enjoy a part of every day. Look for those little bright moments that happen all the time but that we often fail to recognize. Make a point of seeing some good in every day, and you will change your life.

Emerging Trends in Business Ethics

  • Bribery & corruption.
  • Child protection and safeguarding.
  • Competition and antitrust.
  • Data protection.
  • Harassment and bullying.
  • Human rights & modern slavery.
  • Integrity compliance.
  • Sports governance.

Ethical conduct was firmly in the spotlight for much of 2018 for a variety of reasons, from the movement which pushed bullying and harassment onto board agendas, through to the implementation of GDPR which turned us all into data privacy experts.

Despite the many geopolitical challenges around the world and the forecasts predicting a slowdown in global economic growth, the impetus for businesses to be run ethically will continue in 2019. Corporate misconduct damages more than reputation.

Data Protection moved from the back of the IT cupboard to the top of the board agenda during 2018 as businesses sought to ensure they treated personal information appropriately and were properly protected from data breaches.

Human Rights legislation has strengthened around the world, most recently in Australia which passed a Modern Slavery Act in 2018 that came into effect on January 1.

All this amounts to the beginnings of genuine pressure on businesses to demonstrate more effectively that they are putting steps in place to assess, mitigate and measure the impact of their activities on human rights.

Economic Crime continued to hit the headlines globally last year and more scandals will almost certainly emerge during 2019. No-one would be surprised if we have another mega leak of data from an offshore jurisdiction and there is a marked change in tone amongst key corporate leaders who are starting to challenge the widespread use of these locations for tax avoidance.

Regulators are undoubtedly strengthening their number of areas. For businesses the worst response is turn a blind eye and hope that nothing goes wrong.

SE

Data privacy, also called information privacy, is the aspect of information technology (IT) that deals with the ability an organization or individual has to determine what data in a computer system can be shared with third parties.

Information privacy is the relationship between the collection and dissemination of data, technology, the public expectation of privacy, and the legal and political issues surrounding them.

[1] It is also known as data privacy

[2] or data protection.

Data privacy is challenging since it attempts to use data while protecting an individual’s privacy preferences and personally identifiable information.

[3] The fields of computer security, data security, and information security

Information types

Various types of personal information often come under privacy concerns.

Cable television

This describes the ability to control what information one reveals about oneself over cable television, and who can access that information.

Educational

The Register that “a child’s school life including exam results, attendance, teacher assessments and even characteristics” could be available, with third-party organizations being responsible for anonymizing any publications themselves

Financial

Information about a person’s financial transactions, including the amount of assets, positions held in stocks or funds, outstanding debts, and purchases can be sensitive. If criminals gain access to information such as a person’s accounts or credit card numbers, that person could become the victim of fraud or identity theft.

Internet

The ability to control the information one reveals about oneself over the internet, and who can access that information, has become a growing concern. To avoid giving away too much personal information, emails should be encrypted.

Locational

As location tracking capabilities of mobile devices are advancing (location-based services), problems related to user privacy arise. Location data is among the most sensitive data currently being collected.

Medical

People may not wish for their medical records to be revealed to others due to the confidentiality and sensitivity of what the information could reveal about their health. For example, they might be concerned that it might affect their insurance coverage or employment.

Political

Political privacy has been a concern since voting systems emerged in ancient times. The secret ballot is the simplest and most widespread measure to ensure that political views are not known to anyone other than the voters themselves

Legality

The legal protection of the right to privacy in general – and of data privacy in particular – varies greatly around the world. Laws and regulations related to Privacy and Data Protection are constantly changing; it is seen as important to keep abreast of any changes in the law and to continually reassess compliance with data privacy and security regulations.

Areas covered by information privacy

  • Healthcare records
  • Criminal justice investigations and proceedings
  • Financial institutions and transactions
  • Biological traits, such as genetic material
  • Residence and geographic records
  • Privacy breach
  • Location-based service and geolocation
  • Web surfing behavior or user preferences using persistent cookies
  • Academic research

Research on the following: KNDS and KNLS

Cover the following areas

  • How and when established
  • Objective
  • Functions
  • Services offered
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