What is National Integration?
It is the bringing together of different communities into one nation.
It is the process of uniting people that live in a country in spite of their diverse culture, religion, race, tribe, occupation and social background.
State the importance of National Integration.
- It brings lasting peace and prosperity.
- It enables Kenyans to solve the many problems they at times find themselves in.
- It brings rapid economic and social development.
- It results in political stability and a feeling of security.
- It eliminates intercommunal suspicion and enhances nationalism and patriotism.
- It helps create conditions suitable to attract foreign investment.
- It provides a national direction, for it sets national goals.
- It encourages and enhances communication among the people since it involves an official language of communication.
What is National Unity?
National Unity is bringing together or fully fusing a country‟s citizens into one, enabling each to have a sense of belonging.
Name three symbols of national unity in Kenya.
- The national flag.
- The National Anthem.
- The Coat Of Arms.
- The Loyalty pledge.
- National Awards.
- National holidays.
Identify the factors that promote national unity in Kenya.
- The Constitution, which guarantees equality of opportunity to all citizens.
- The curriculum (system of education), which encourages children from an early age to develop a feeling of national belonging.
- Equal distribution of resources by trying to develop the whole country‟s economy.
- Intermarriage and other intercommunal activities such as games and music festivals in addition to trade and working together.
- In Kenya, business is transacted through one currency: the Shilling.
- The national language (Kiswahili), which enables Kenyans to communicate freely and easily.
- National philosophies (Harambe, African Socialism and Nyayoism), which call on Kenyans to pool their resources together in peace, love and unity in spite of their different ethnic groups.
- The National Flag, the symbol of our nation.
- The Kenya Coat of Arms, which symbolizes our existence as a sovereign state.
- The national Anthem, which reminds us of our peaceful and harmonious existence.
- The Loyalty pledge, a reminder of our loyalty to the president and our nation.
- National awards, which are given to Kenyans of outstanding performance in contributing to the country‟s development.
Government institutions (the Judiciary, the Executive and the Legislature), which serve all Kenyans equally.
- . National public holidays and events, which are held throughout Kenya.
- The institution of the Presidency, which unites all Kenyans, for the president is the Head of state and government.
- Urbanization, which promotes co-existence and interaction among Kenyans as people from different ethnic groups live together in towns and even intermarry.
- A centralized system of government.
In what ways does the Kenya Constitution promote national Unity?
- It provides the equality of all Kenyans.
- Kenyans are bound by one constitution, making it a unifying factor.
- It guarantees equal opportunities for all Kenyans.
- It protects individuals against any form of discrimination as provided for in the Bill of Rights.
- It provides for a unitary government under one president.
Explain the factors that undermine national unity in Kenya.
- Religious conflicts, caused by interdenominational, denominational, sectarian and interreligious differences, based on doctrinal differences and the struggle for leadership. This has led to civil wars in such places as Sudan and Northern Ireland.
- Ethnicity i.e. the favouring of people from one‟s own ethnic group at the expense of others.
- Racism and intolerance, whereby citizens choose not to accommodate others or opposing views.
- Corruption i.e. giving and receiving bribes and abuse of office.
- Divisive politics, whereby parties tend to divide people into camps based on party affiliation, even over matters of national interest.
- Economic inequality whereby the wealthy class own a large part of agricultural and industrial business and hold key posts in the civil service, the military, educational institutions and the industries as others remain below the poverty line, victimised by unemployment, unequal income distribution, lack of land and adverse climatic conditions.
- Cultural and traditional conflicts, whereby some alien practices may conflict with traditional African ones e.g. style of dressing and the issue of equality between men and women.
- Poverty, which leads to antisocial acts such as theft and violence.
- Political ideologies i.e. different political views, leading to use of physical or verbal violence.
- Nepotism i.e. favouring one‟s relatives.
What is conflict?
Conflict could be defined as:
- Disagreement between people, based on opposing views or interests.
- Armed struggle between people or soldiers.
Identify the levels of conflict.
Conflicts range from ordinary family level to national and international levels. These are:
Individual versus individual.
- Group versus group.
- Individual versus state.
- Group versus state.
- State versus state.
Identify the aspects of conflict.
There are three main aspects of conflict, namely:
- Social aspects, i.e. disputes involving members of a family, clan or tribe, religious groups and educational institutions.
- Political aspects i.e. disputes between political parties.
- Economic aspects i.e. disputes between employers and employees.
Explain the factors that led to conflict in Kenya after independence.
After Kenya got her independence, conflicts arose from economic-related factors, such as:
- Market economy, which might contribute to conflict between trading and industrial groups, especially under the free market policy.
- Contractual conflict, mostly caused by contracted companies who fail to complete work to the standards agreed upon, or contracted agents who fail to pay for work or service rendered.
- Kenya and the world, whereby conflicts may arise between Kenya and her neighbours over diverse issues, such as use of natural resources, influx of refugees from neighbouring countries, or national security issues.
- Trading policies, especially where Kenya or her neighbours impose tariffs that are perceived to harm the countries‟ trading interests.
- Conflicts that involve Kenya with foreign donor agencies, lending agencies and other international organizations.
What is conflict-resolution?
- The process of settling disputes.
- The working out of a settlement to defuse the conflict.
Identify the methods of resolving conflict in Kenya.
Methods of resolving conflict depend on the type, nature, magnitude and level of understanding of the parties or persons in disagreement, such as:
- Arbitration, whereby arbitrators mediate and resolve conflicts as provided for by the Kenyan law.
- Diplomacy i.e. negotiation between individuals or countries to create room for understanding and reconciliation. Diplomacy can be used to solve conflicts at domestic, tribal, Institutional, international, national and working levels. The U N O is heavily involved in international diplomacy throughout the world.
- Legislation, which involves passing of laws that can be used to criminalize activities that lead to conflict.
- Traditional resolutions, which are enacted by elders or wise men, normally used between conflicting communities.
- Religious action, which can be used first among parties themselves and their followers.
- Court action, where parties take other parties for arbitration. It can be taken up by any of the parties in conflict.
- Policing, which is used to maintain law and order and helps in controlling crime that brings about conflict.
- International agreements, normally between Kenya and her neighbours and between Kenya and the donor countries or agencies.
Discuss the process of resolving conflict in Kenya today.
This involves or takes the following course:
- The Legal process. The Judiciary, through established courts throughout the country is empowered to solve cases among citizens.
- Arbitration i.e. Round Table discussion. This involves identifying the source or cause of the conflict and then sitting to iron out the problems. The arbitrator and the conflicting parties meet and talk face to face.
- The Court process. Here, the conflicting parties take their case to a court of law. Both parties are allowed to call witnesses to prove their case. The court may dismiss or allow the case to continue. Upon delivery of the verdict, any party that is dissatisfied is given chance to appeal to High court.
- Here, criminal cases are reported to the police, who arrest and present the suspects for prosecution before a court of law.
- Armed Forces. In the absence of law and order, force is the only option. The police or the army are required to arrest, detain or shoot at suspects. This method is used to deal with strikes, mobs, bandits and revolts.
- a mediator calls the conflicting parties for a meeting after individually studying the points of disagreement, after which a peaceful resolution may be arrived at.
What three steps does Negotiation take as a process of resolving conflict?
The following steps are followed during Negotiation:
- Finding out the facts about the conflict.
- Discussing the possible solutions.
Reaching an agreement, by which each party shows willingness to compromise.