For any branch of knowledge to be considered a science, it should fulfill the following:

  1. Should have a systematic body of knowledge with its own principles (independent).
  2. The principles have to be evolved on the basis of constant inquiry and examination (research).
  3. The principles must explain a phenomenon by establishing a cause-effect relationship.
  4. The principles should be available for verification to be universally acceptable.

Management as a discipline fulfills the above because:

  • It has emerged as a systematic body of knowledge with its own principles.
  • The application of these principles helps any practicing manager to achieve the desired goals.
  • Management is dynamic because it has borrowed heavily form other disciplines to help solve management problems, disciplines e.g. Psychology, Sociology, Philosophy, Religion, Economics.

NB: Management cannot be viewed as an exact science but rather inexact science because of the following:-

  1. By definition, management involves getting things done through other people who are unique in respect of aspirations, attitudes, perceptions e.t.c. Their differences are so obvious that standard results may not be achieved in otherwise similar environment.
  2. The behavior of human beings cannot be predicted accurately and therefore standards and ready made solutions cannot be prescribed.
  3. Management is concerned with the future which is complex and unpredictable so that if there are changes in the environment, the management plans will be affected.
  4. Management plans are prone to change due to the changes in the external environment e.g. Technological changes, economic and socio-cultural changes.
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