Management Accounting December  2023 Past paper

TUESDAY: 5 December 2023. Morning Paper. Time Allowed: 3 hours.

Answer ALL questions. Marks allocated to each question are shown at the end of the question. Show ALL your workings. Do NOT write anything on this paper.


1. Discuss THREE essential features of a budget. (6 marks)

2. Godoro Ltd. supplies high quality mattresses. The company outsources these mattresses from a supplier in town. Godoro Ltd. estimates that the total inventory holding cost of one mattress per annum is as follows:

Additional information:
1. The annual sales demand of the mattresses is 480 mattresses.
2. Each mattress costs Sh.4,000 to purchase from the supplier.
3. The ordering cost is Sh.6,250 per order.
4. The supplier offers a 3% discount for orders of 120 mattresses and a discount of 5% for orders of 180


The economic order quantity (EOQ) of the mattresses. (2 marks)

The cost minimising order size from the supplier. (4 marks)

3. Jeffy Ltd. has been manufacturing and selling three textile products. The following details are available for each of the three products:

Additional information:
1. Each direct labour hour is charged at Sh.120 for cotton, Sh.120 for linen and Sh.70 for polyester.
2. The direct labour force is threatening to go on strike for two weeks. This means that only 10,100
hours will be available for production rather than the expected 20,200 hours.

If the strike goes ahead as planned, advise the management of Jeffy Ltd. on the product(s) that should be
produced if profits are to be maximised. (8 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)


1. The Management Accountant of Almah Ltd. provided the following profit statement for the year ended
31 October 2023:


Calculate the break-even sales. (2 marks)

Calculate the margin of safety. (2 marks)

2. The management of Almah Ltd. in (a) above is considering two options with a view to increase sales in the year 2024.

These options are:
Option one: Increase sales by 30% and incur a sales promotion campaign worth Sh.5 million.
Option two: Increase sales by 20% and reduce the selling price by 10%.

Advise the management of Almah Ltd. on the better option to implement. (4 marks)

3. Dimax College has been using their own van to transport students to and from college. The new principal feels this may be too expensive for the school. He suggests that the college could lease transport services from Gari Ltd. at a cost of Sh.308,000 per month.

The college accountant revealed the following information:

Additional information:
1. The van is estimated to cover 40,000 km per year. It has an estimated useful life of six years.
2. A new traffic rule has been issued requiring all passenger vehicles including college vans to be fitted
with speed governors and seat belts. This will cost Sh.40,000 per annum.
3. Gari Ltd.’s monthly cost of Sh.308,000 is attributed as follows:


Compute the cost per kilometre if the college:
• Uses its own transport. (6 marks)
• Hires transport services. (3 marks)

Outline THREE other factors that the college might consider in choosing the best alternative.
(3 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)


1. Differentiate between “overhead allocation” and “overhead absorption”. (4 marks)

2. Maono Ltd. has a budgetary activity level of 50,000 direct hours and budgeted production overheads of Sh.10,000,000. The following information was obtained from its three departments namely; A, B and C.
1. Department A: 50,000 direct hours are worked and the actual overheads were Sh.9,400,000.
2. Department B: 43,000 direct hours are worked and the actual overheads were Sh.10,000,000.
3. Department C: 45,000 direct hours are worked and the actual overheads were Sh.9,600,000.

Determine over or under absorption of overheads of each department. (6 marks)

3. Tamu Ltd. is a company located in the Eastern part of the country and manufactures juices. The company plans to establish a subsidiary in western part of the country to produce mineral water. Tamu Ltd. estimates that the subsidiary can produce 40,000,000 bottles of water in the next one year.
The cost analysis for the subsidiary yielded the following estimates:

Additional information:
1. The bottled water produced by the subsidiary will be sold by sales representatives who will receive a
commission of 8% of the sales price.
2. The subsidiary will operate independently in terms of costs and revenue.


Compute the sales price per bottle to enable management realise an estimated 10% profits on sales
proceeds in the subsidiary. (6 marks)

Calculate the break-even point in value for the subsidiary on the assumption that the sales price is
Sh.110 per bottle. (4 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1.  Melta Ltd. has just completed its first year in operation. The unit costs and selling price based on absorption costing basis are as follows:

Additional information:
1. Other budgeted costs during the period in relation to selling and distribution and administration were
as follows:

2. During the year, the company had the following activity levels:
• Actual production was 24,000 units.
• Units sold were 21,300 units.
3. Actual fixed production overheads was Sh.300,000 less than absorbed fixed production overheads.
4. Budgeted fixed selling and distribution overheads were Sh.50,000 less than the actual fixed
5. Melta Ltd. used an expected activity level of 24,000 direct labour hours to compute the predetermined
overhead rates.

Prepare the following operating statements:

Absorption costing profit or loss statement. (6 marks)

Marginal costing profit or loss statement. (6 marks)

A reconciliation statement for absorption and marginal profits. (2 marks)

2. Motomoto Ltd. operates standard costing system. The following budgeted information relates to its only product:

Additional information:
1. Budgeted fixed overheads for its product is based on budgeted output of 800 units per month.
2. Standard selling price was budgeted as Sh.1,600 per unit.
3. There was no opening or closing inventory of direct material.

Flexible budget profit statement. (6 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)



1. Major policy decisions in business are based on cost factor and it is important to distinguish between
controllable and non-controllable costs in decision making. However, the classification of cost as controllable and non-controllable depends on the point of reference.


With reference to the above statement, explain TWO possible uses of cost information to the
management. (2 marks)

By distinguishing between “controllable costs” and “non-controllable costs”, discuss how the
classification of cost as controllable and non-controllable depends on a point of reference. (4 marks)

2. Activity Based Costing (ABC) attempts to relate the incidence of costs to the level of activities undertaken.

In relation to the above statement, explain the following hierarchy of activities that are used in activity based costing system:

Unit level activities. (2 marks)

Batch level activities. (2 marks)

Product level activities. (2 marks)

3. ABC Ltd. produces and sells a single product Zed whose standard cost is as follows:

Additional information:
1. The fixed overheads included in the standard cost is based on an expected monthly output of 1,000
2. Fixed production overheads are absorbed on the basis of direct labour hours.
3. During the month of November 2023, the actual results were as follows:


Material price variance and material wage variance. (4 marks)

Labour rate variance and labour efficiency variance. (4 marks)

(Total: 20 marks)

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