Loans and Borrowings

Verification of liabilities may be carried out by employing the following procedures:

  1.  examination of records;
  2.  direct confirmation procedure;
  3.  examination of disclosure;
  4.  analytical review procedures,
  5. obtaining management representations.

The nature, timing and extent of substantive procedures to be performed is, however, a matter of professional judgement of the auditor which is based, inter alia, on the auditor’s evaluation of the effectiveness of the related internal controls.

Loans and Borrowings
The auditor should satisfy himself that the loans obtained are within the borrowing powers of the entity. The auditor should carry out an examination of the relevant records to judge the validity and accuracy of the loans. In respect of loans and advances from banks, financial institutions and others, the auditor should examine that the book balances agree with the statements of the lenders. He should also examine the reconciliation statements, if any, prepared by the entity in this regard. The auditor should examine the important terms in the loan agreements and the documents, if any, evidencing charge in respect of such loans and advances. He should particularly examine whether the requirements of the applicable statute regarding creation and registration of charges have been complied with.

Where the entity has accepted deposits, the auditor should examine whether the directives issued by the Reserve Bank of India or other appropriate authority are complied with. In case the value of the security falls below the amount of the loan outstanding, the auditor should examine whether the loan is classified as secured only to the extent of the market value of the security. Where short-term secured loans have been disclosed separately from other secured loans, the auditor should verify the correctness of the amount of such short-term loans. Where instalments of long-term loans falling due within the next twelve months have been disclosed in the financial statements (e.g., in parentheses or by way of a footnote), the auditor should verify the correctness of the amount of such instalments. The auditor should examine the hire purchase agreements for the purchase of assets by the entity and ensure the correctness of the amounts shown as outstanding in the accounts and also examine the security aspect. Future instalments under hire purchase agreements for the purchase of assets may be shown as secured loans. The deferred payment credits should be verified with reference to the important terms in the agreement, including due dates of payments and guarantees furnished by banks. The auditor should also verify the copies of hundies/bills accepted separately.

Trade Creditors and Other Current Liabilities: The auditor should check the adequacy of cut-off procedures adopted by the entity in relation to transactions affecting the creditor accounts. For example, the auditor may examine the documents relating to receipt of goods from suppliers during a few days immediately before the year-end and verify that the related invoices have been recorded as purchases of the current year. The auditor should check that the total of the creditors’ balances agrees with the related control account, if any; the difference, if any, should be examined.

The auditor should examine the correspondence and other relevant documentary evidence to satisfy himself about the validity, accuracy and completeness of creditors/acceptances. The auditor should verify that in cases where income is collected in advance for services to be rendered in future, the unearned portion, not applicable to the period under audit, is not recognised as income of the period under audit but is shown in the balance sheet as a part of current liabilities. While examining schedule of creditors and other schedules such as those relating to advance payments, unclaimed dividends and other liabilities, the auditor should pay special attention to the following aspects:

  1. long outstanding items;
  2.  unadjusted claims for short supplies, poor quality, discount, commission, etc.;
  3.  liabilities not correlated/adjusted against related advances;
  4.  authorisation and correctness of transfers from one account to another.

Based on his examination as aforesaid, the auditor should determine whether any adjustments in accounts are required. In case there are any unusual payments around the year-end, the auditor should examine them thoroughly. In particular, the auditor should examine if the entries relating to any such payments have been reversed in the subsequent period. The auditor should review subsequent transactions to identify/confirm material liabilities outstanding at the balance sheet date.

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