Islamic Religious Education Paper 2 (314/2)
l. (a) Beneﬁts of good morals to the Muslim youth.
(i) eliminates crime, quarrels and ﬁghting among the youth.
(ii) promotes peace and harmony in the society.
(iii) enables the youth to be responsible members of society.
(iv) enables youth to contribute positively to the Ummah.
(v) pervasive behaviour and sins will be minimal.
(vi) enhaces good relations with Allah, self and other members of the society.
(vii) fosters respect between different members of the society/one is respected.
(viii) makes one to grow both spiritually and socially.
(iX) eliminates deliquency or anti-social behaviour.
(X) morally upright youth are successful members of the society as they contribute to the social, political and economic development of the society.
(Xi) morally upright youth serve as role models and can serve as agents for social change.
(xii) upholding good morals may be a basis for attracting other people to Islam.
8 x 1 = 8 marks
(b) Rationale for the prohibition of abortion in Islam.
(i) denies the child right to life which is a fundamental purpose of Shariah.
(ii) it takes away the right of Allah who is the absolute giver of life.
(iii) goes against laws of Allah and Sunnah of the Prophet (P.b.u.h.) Q 17:31.
(iv) threatens the survival of the human race. It is a great crime that is punishable under the laws of Allah.
(v) can lead to the death of the mother.
(vi) causes health complications and trauma to the mother.
(vii)can lead to social stigmatization.
(viii) discourages responsible intimacy within marriage.
(iX) causes depression and a sense of guilt for killing an innocent life.
(X) can lead to family breakup.
7 x 1 = 7 marks
(c) Manners of sleeping that a Muslim can adopt from the Sunnah of the Prophet (P.b.u.h.).
(i) recitation of dua before sleeping and when waking up.
(ii) recitation of the muawadhateiri.
(iii) sleeping on the right side.
(iv) taking wudhu before sleeping.
(v) nibbing the whole body after reciting the dua and muawadhatein.
(vi) do not sleep during prayer time.
people of the same sex should not cover themselves with the same cover/should
(vii) not sleep under the same cover.
(x) in case of a bad dream, recite a dua and change direction.
(xi) check beddings before sleep.
(xi) give wasiya.
(xii) relax before getting up from the bed.
(xiii) sleep earlyafter [shah and wake up early.
5 x 1 = 5 marks
2. (a) Factors that will prevent a heir from inheriting a deceased Muslim.
(i) differences in religion, a Muslim and a non-Muslim cannot inherit from each other.
(ii) murder, a person who kills intentionally is denied the right to inherit.
(iii) slavery, slaves can neither inherit nor be inherited.
3 x 1 = 3 marks
(b) How Islam empower women economically.
(i) women are accorded the right to own property.
(ii) women are allowed to engage in income generating activities such as business, legal employment, etc.
(iii) entitled to a deﬁnite share of inheritance from parents, husbands, and close relatives.
(iv) allowed to receive dowry from their husbands.
(v) married women should be taken care of by their husbands hence can use their earnings in investment of their choice.
(vi) the fact that Islam makes it compulsory for both men and women to seek knowledge opens the avenues for both parties to advance in different careers and also in the job market.
(vii) Islam allows women to receive gifts and be recipients of the proceeds from religious endownments (Waqf) which could be of high-economic value.
(viii) women are entitled to ﬁnancial support if they are taking care of the custody of the children after divorce.
7 x 1 = 7 marks
(c) Ways through which Muslims can assist in the eradication of corruption in the society.
(i) Muslims should neither accept nor give bribes. They should be beyond reproach, as far as the issue of corruption is concerned.
(ii) by reporting those involved in corruption to the relevant authorities so that action can be taken against them.
(iii) for those in authority, appointments should be on merit, no one should be promoted unprocedurally, there should be no nepotism.
(iv) through advocating for good governance, fairness and justice in all dealings.
Muslims should always be the ﬁrst to speak and oppose injustice and corruption.
(v) creating public awareness through the mass media so as to enlighten the society on the ills of corruption.
(vi) corruption as a topic taught in schools – this inculcates good hence they cannot engage in corruption.
(vii) advocating for severe punishment for those engaged in corrupt deals so as to deter anyone from engaging in the vice.
5 X 2 = 10 marks
3. (a) Process of talaq in Islam.
(i) the husband and wife try to settle their disputes among themselves.
(ii) if it fails then arbitration should be sought from relatives of both parties.
(iii) if it fails the husband should refuse to share the bed with the wife.
(iv) if it fails, the husband administers light beating.
(v) if all the above fails to bring reconciliation the husband pronounces divorce which should be done in a clear manner and in line with the Prophet’s teachings e.g. avoiding divorcing her while in menstruation, pronouncing the divorce one at a time.
(vi) the wife to observe the eddaz‘ in husband’s house, and should be maintained by the husband.
6 x 1 = 6 marks
(b) Why the family is considered as the foundation of the Islamic society.
(i) The family is considered to be the ﬁrst school (Madrasa). This is based on the Islamic principle that states that the mother is a school.
(ii) The Islamic society is built on the basis of a legitimate marriage which provides a strong foundation where children are raised under the care, love and guidance of both parents.
(iii) The family provides a conducive environment where members relate in a compassionate and loving manner.
(iv) The family gives the child a sense of belonging and identity as a member of the Muslim Ummah e.g. through naming.
(v) It ensures proper socialization and moral training from the parents to their children.
(vi) By taking good care of their offspring, children will in turn honour their parents and will not be contemptous of them in their old age. (Q 17:23).
(vii) It is through the family that the seeds of good and responsible Muslims and citizens are nurtured.
(vm) Blood relations through marriage form the basis of social support system in Islam e.g. inheritance.
7 x 1 = 7 marks
(c) Measures put in place by Islam to eliminate racism.
(i) The message contained in the Quran is for the whole of mankind.
(ii) Muslims pray together whether rich or poor, black or white.
(iii) The Holy Prophet (P.b.u.h.) was sent to the whole of mankind.
(iv) The Prophet (P.b.u.h.) emphasized on brotherhood during the farewell pilgrimage.
(v) Intermarriage between people of different races is allowed. This helps in eradicating social prejudice.
(vi)Islam teaches that the best before Allah are the most pious, regardless of their race or social background.
(vii) Performance of Hajj is a symbol of unity and brotherhood of all Muslims regardless of their races.
(viii)The Islamic law does not favour anybody, all are equal before the law, there are no ranks in justice.
(IX) Burial procedure for Muslims is the same.
(X) Qualities of leadership is speciﬁed and applicable to all Muslims.
7 x 1 = 7 marks
4. (a) Similarities between the reign of Umar Ibn Abdulaziz and Umar al-Khattab.
(i) Both witnessed prosperity during their reigns to the extent that nobody required to be given Zakat.
(ii) Both witnessed uprecedented peace and security.
(iii) Both eras were characterised by reforms in all aspects of life e.g. administration.
(iv) Both executed justice to the letter and everyone got a fair deal.
(v) For both, their lives ended tragically Umar al-Khattab was stabbed to death and Umar Ibn Abdulaziz was poisoned.
(vi) In both eras, they chose leaders who were trustworthy and pious.
(vii) Both Khalifas were trustworthy and God-fearing.
(viii) They both resembled each other walked and dressed the same. Umar Ibn Abdulaziz was a grandson of Umar bin Khattab.
(ix)Both reigns registered tremendous progress and development of Muslim caliphate which were not witnessed in the other eras.
5 x l = 5 marks
(b) Effects of the contact between the Arab settlers and the indigenous people of the East African coast before the nineteenth century.
(i) It led to the spread of Islam at the East Coast of Africa.
(ii) There was intermarriage between Arab settlers and the local inhabitants.
(iii) Muslims city states ﬂourished with trade and other activities.
(iv) It led to the enrichment of Kiswaili language which had a heavy borrowing from Arabic language.
(V) Islamic culture was adopted as a way of life for the Coastal people i.e. mode of dressing, eating etc.
(vi) They constructed places of worship i.e. mosques and learning centres i.e. Madrasas.
(vii) Islamic education was introduced.
(viii) Arabic and Persian architecture were introduced as a result of this contact.
(iX) It led to the introduction of Arabic literacy which helped in the writing of (X) Swahili language using the ajamy form of writing.
(Xi) It led to the introduction of religion specialists such as Imams, Kadhis, etc.
(Xii) It led to the introduction of new forms of religious ceremonies e.g. Nikah, Maulid, etc.
5 x 2= 10 marks
(c) Lessons that Muslims learn from the leadership of Khalifa Maamun in the development of education during the Abbasid era.
(i) importance of libraries in the advancement of education, he encouraged the establishment of both private and public libraries.
(ii) importance of supporting scholars and patronising them, Maamun ﬁnanced the writing of books and supported scholars with stipends.
(iii) that Islam does not differentiate scholars on the basis of religion, he supported both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars.
(iv) Islam does not discriminate women in the pursuit of education – he encouraged women to attend school.
(v) importance of establishing learning centres, during his reign, schools were established even in private houses, he established the Baitul Hikma which was an important learning centre.
(vi) signiﬁcance of research in advancement of education, he ﬁnanced research.
(vii) role of Muslims in promotion of education, that Muslims should strive to encourage the pursit for knoweldge. Muslims were free to attend scholarly discussions in his court.
(viii) we should educate our children and inculcate in them love for knowledge. Al- Maamun was well educated and encouraged establishment of schools even in private houses.
(ix) importance of translating education works into languages that are understood by Muslims so as to promote knowledge. e.g. works of scholars such as Plato, Aristotle, Galileo were translated into Arabic for easy understanding.
5 x 1 = 5 marks
5 (a) Role played by Nabongo Mumia in the spread of Islam in Western Kenya.
(i) he welcomed trade caravans and allowed them to settle in his area to trade and spread Islam.
(ii) he embraced Islam and through him his people including 3 brothers embraced Islam
(iii) allowed his people to inter marry with the Muslim traders which led to further spreading of Islam.
(iv) allowed the Muslims to propagate Islam in Western Kenya e.g. Shariff Hassan sent Muslims to different areas of Western Kenya and parts of Uganda to preach Islam.
(v) supported the Asian Muslims who reached Western Kenya in the propagation of Islam.
(vi) He set aside special quarters for Muslims to stay while in his kingdom and catered for their basic necessities. This created a conducive environment for Muslims to interact with the locals paving way for the propagation of Islam.
(vii) Muslim coastal traders were accorded status of brotherhood by Nabongo as a result of the help they gave him to ﬁght off his enemies thus cementing the fraternal relations between the Muslims and the local inhabitants.
(viii) The friendly relations between Nabongo Mumia and the earlier Muslim traders encouraged more Muslim traders and missionaries to propagate Islam to other parts of Western Kenya e.g. Gaziti was sent to Kakamega and Mwinyi Akida to Kisumu.
(ix) Nabongo’s closest associates and advisors upon conversion to Islam were instrumental in the conversion of more indigenous people to Islam.
5 x 2 = 10 marks
(b) Measures undertaken by the Prophet (P.b.u.h.) in preparation for Hijra to Madina.
(i) He instructed the Sahabas to sneak out secretly under the cover of darkness to Madina.
(ii) Instnicted the Sahabas to leave in small groups so as not to be noticed.
(iii) Instnicted Ali to sleep in his bed so as to confuse the Quraish and surrender back peoples’ treasures.
(iv) Hired a person who was well versed with the desert to guide him and Abubakar to Madina.
(v) Prepared Asma the daughter of Abubakar to be bringing them food while in the cave.
(vi) Sent a spy Abdullahi to bring him news of the Quraish.
(vii) Made plans to hide in a cave for three days so as to trick the Quraish which worked well for him.
(viii) Planned well on the routes to take, distance to be covered by day before embarking on his journey.
(ix) Signed the covenant of aqabah with the Yathribites who pledged to protect him against the Quraish.
(x) The Prophet recited a dua.
4 x 1 = 4 marks
(c) Circumstances that led to the formation of the Khawarij movement.
(i) murder of Khalifa Uthman which caused discontent and division among Muslims.
(ii) Muawiya’s refusal to pledge loyalty to Ali, they neither supported Ali nor Muawiya, felt that both were wrong hence formed their own group.
(iii) battles of camel and sifﬁn which weakened Ali’s camp hence gave strength to the rise of the Kharijites.
(iv) foreign inﬂuence since most of them were new converts from Persia.
lack of proper guidance since most of them were youngsters with little (v) knowledge and did not seek guidance from the older generation especially the Sahaba’s.
(vi) self madefatwas and principles such as excommunicating their opponents e.g. considered Ali and Muawiya as inﬁdels.
(vii) the arbitration incident, they were opposed to the idea of Ali negotiating with Muawiya whom they considered an inﬁdel and instead insisted on Quran to be the basis of their negotiation.
3 x 2 = 6 marks
6. (a) Lessons that a Muslim can learn from Sheikh Abdallah Saleh Farsy.
(i) A Muslim should dedicate his time and energy to the course of Islam.
(ii) Bad health and old age should not prevent one from serving Allah, he dedicated his Whole life to serving Allah even when old and sick.
(iii) In order for Muslims to truly Worship Allah, they have to obey him and eradicate innovations. He Wrote a book called Bidaa.
(iv) With sincerity, Allah will bless one’s work to beneﬁt humanity, he was able to translate the Quran into Kiswahili which beneﬁted many Muslims, and is still in use up to date.
(v) Muslims should dedicate their lives in the propagation of Islam. Sheikh Abdallah Farsy visited all parts of East Africa for the purpose of Daawa.
(vi) The Way to reforms is through education, he taught and authored rrmny books, e.g. “Utukufu wa swala na namna ya kuisali” etc. He spent most of his life as a teacher.
(vii) offering service to Islam is not restricted to one’s place of birth. He served as a chief Kadhi of Kenya even though he was a Zanzibari by origin.
(viii) Muslims should be ﬁrm, steadfast and courageous in promotion of Islamic affairs. He fought Bidaa practices and even Wrote a book on the same.
(ix) Muslims should support Women education bearing in mind that his ﬁrst Quran teacher was a Muslim female educationist, Fatma Hamid Said.
(x) Muslims should seek both Islamic and secular education. Sheikh Earsy undertook the study of religion from many Muslim Ulamas and also went upto primary teacher’s training college.
8 x 1 = 8 marks
(b) Measures introduced by Hassan Al-Banna to reform the Egyptian society.
(i) He founded the Ikhwan-ul-Muslimun which focused on social and moral programmes e.g. in public health, social services in both rural and urban areas.
(ii) he appealed to the Muslims not to imitate the West with its materialistic ideology.
(iii) advocated for Muslim brotherhood, following the Quran, Sunnah and practices of the early Muslim community which will lead to the establishment of an Islamic system of government.
(iv) advocated for a total rejection of the West and denounced the Muslim intellectuals and the government for their dependence on the West.
(v) emphasized on unity among Muslims.
(vi) he tried to reform and modernise the Muslim society through Islamic principles and values.
(vii) wrote and published books on social, religious and political issues affecting the Muslims e.g a daily paper known as “lkhwan-ul-Muslimun” and a booklet “What Is Our Message”.
(viii) He established communities of sincere believers who were distinguished from the rest of the Egyptian society, these were to serve as the basis for transforming the Egyptian society.
(ix) Opened youth institutions to motivate the youth and empower them economically.
7 x 1 = 7 marks
(c) How a Muslim youth can use the social media to promote good and forbid evil.
(i) use the social media i.e. twitter, facebook, blog, skype to post relevant articlesl lectures especially those that are directed to the youth.
(ii) follow up what is posted by others and objectively support the good and criticise what is evil.
(iii) share with others information that promotes good and ignore information that promotes evil.
(iv) objectively enrich debates and discussions that serve the youth positively.
ﬁnancially and morally support like-minded people and media.
(v) boycott media that promotes evil e.g. pornography, homosexuality, etc.
(vi) establish a network of like-minded Muslim youth to exchange ideas and advice other on Islamic issues.
(vii)donate through the social media for charitable courses e.g. one shilling foundation, famine.
(viii)use the social media to draw the attention of Muslims towards issues that threaten Islam and Muslims.
5 x 1 = 5 marks.