KCSE Past Papers IRE 2013 Paper 2 (314/2)

  • 5.4.2 Islamic Religious Education Paper 2 (314/2)

    1. (a) Effects of Sexual perversions on the society:


  • Moral decadence in the society, because people engage in immoral acts such as Zina which is fulfilling one ’s desires outside the acceptable llOl‘lTlS e.g. sexual desires should only he fulfilled when one is legally married.
  • Sexual perversions neglects the noble objectives of sex to a mere gratification of physical desires;
  • It reduces reproduction since sexual perverts may not play their role as spouses according to the Shariah. –
  • It leads to the breakdown of marriage as the basic unit of the Muslim family’;
  • It leads to the spread of sexual transmitted (Stds) such as I-IIV/AIDS
  • It causes poverty in the society as resources are diverted from their proper use;
  • It reduces economic productivity since many parents spend working hours in their pursuits of fulfilling their desires e.g. watching pomography.
  • It increases the number of crimes in the society eg. rape, incest. etc.
  • It is a major reason for incest.
  • Innocent children are abused to satisfy such perversions e.g child prostitutions.
  • pomography and paedophile.
  • lt attracts punishment from Allah in this world and in the hereafter
  • Children whose parents engage in immoral acts may suffer due to negligence.8 x l = 8 marks

    b) Etiquettes of speech according to Islamic teachings.


  • A person should either say what is good and beneficial or remain silent:
  • A person‘s speech should be based on truth. The prophet (p .b.u.h) said “speak the truth even if it is bitter’;
  • A person‘s speech should guarantee the safety of others;
  • Speech should be used for remembrance of Allah (dhikr) and promotion of general good e.g giving of charity and reconciliation;
  • Speech should not involve slander, lies, back biting or giving false witnesses or testimonies.
  • Two people should not speak alone isolating a third person when they are together to avoid suspicion or ill feeling;
  • In speech, Muslims should avoid useless and hurtful jokes and vain talks:
  • Avoid use of obscene language such as abuses and insults;
  • Avoid using curses in speech.
  • Avoid harsh speech or speaking in a loud voice or tone except when forbidding wrong or enforcing laws of Allah.5 x I =5 marks

    (c) Rationale for the prohibition of intoxicants in Islam:


  • Intoxicants are the mother of all vices and since those who consume intoxicants are prone to vices such as adultery, fomication, theft as a result of addiction e.t.c.2 (a) Effects of terrorism on the society
  • Prayers of a Muslim who consumes alcohol (khamr) will not be accepted by Allah (S.w);
  • many families are destroyed by intoxicants e.g. absentee and irresponsible parents who spend their time drinking alcohol hence neglecting their parental responsibilities;
  • drunkards and drunk addicts commit crimes e.g theft so as to sustain their habits;
  • intoxicants are harmful to the health and well being of a human being e.g. can lead to diseases such as liver cirrhosis, anxiety, brain damage e.t.c.
  • consumption of alcohol has led to loss of many lives through road accidents; consumption of intoxicants leads to wastage of time and money as much time is wasted in bars and money wasted in buying the intoxicants.
  • leads to negligence of children by parents, the children become delinquents and a burden of society.
  • leads to divorce as a result of failure to fulfill conjugal rights and providing basic necessities;
  • one who uses intoxicants is cursed according to the Prophet (S.A.W)7 x 1 = 7 marks


  • Terrorist actions create fear and despondence in the society. Members of the society remain constantly threatened by the fact that terrorist attacks have no specific time or place and hence are downcasted;
  • Members of the society lose trust in each other and some take this opportunity to strike others because of suspicion rather than concrete reasons;
  • Different segments of the society may end up hating each other hence creating
  • permanent hatred in the society which may lead to fights; members of the society are deprived the right of living peacefully and in tranquillity because of the fights which may erupt as a result of the hatred;
  • Development in the society is hindered as people who are subjected to this hatred due to terrorist actions cannot join hands in building the nation.
  • As a result of the attacks from the terrorists, innocent people are victimised either by the govemment or other quarters in the name of fighting terrorism.
  • Property is destroyed and lives are lost in the case of a terrorist attack. e.g September ll.
  • Investors are threatened by the attacks as a result of which they run away from our societies hence melting down the economy.
  • People who practice terrorism portray themselves as bad people and are aways cut off from the society.
  • certain fundamental rights and freedom are deprived of the people who deserve them e.g. subjecting extra vetting to people who want to have their identity cards, passports and other documents or even denying them completely.8 x 1 = 8 marks

    2 a) Rights of a Muslim wife


  • To receive Mahr (dowry) from the husband.
  • To receive maintenance (nafaqah) in form of food, clothing, shelter and medical care.
  • Equal and fair treatment from the husband especially, if he is married to more than one wife (Q 2:228).
  • Right to conjugal intimacy.
  • Has a greater right to the custody of children (especially minors) at the dissolution of marriage and to receive maintenance of this service.
  • Right to keep and dispose any property she earns through her effort or that i which she may have inherited from her relatives.
  • Right to inherit from her deceased husband.
  • Right to be consulted on decisions that affect her. e.g marriage of the daughters.
  • Respect for her close relatives. e.g her parents, siblings etc.
  • Right to retain her identity i.e retain her sumame.8×1=8marks

    b) Conditions to be fulfilled before the administration of the estate


  • Payment of debts;
  • Payment of funeral expenses;
  • Execution of the will left by the deceased;
  • Settlement of personal liabilities;
  • Settlement of Zakat which is due.4 x 1 = 4 marks

    c) Islamic teachings on the acquisition and ownership of property


  • Every person has aright to acquire and own property legally;
  • Islam sanctions acceptable ways of acquiring property i.e, in trade, inheritance, gifts and work.
  • Islam prohibits illegal ways of acquiring property e.g hoarding, monopoly and charging interest.
  • Islam forbids one to take what belongs to others without their permission e.g stealing, robbery or deceit.
  • All property belongs to Allah and is held in trust by mankind.
  • One should pay religious dues on property such as Zakat.
  • A person should avoid extravagant use of resources and property.
  • One should use his property for the benefit of the community.
  • A person should avoid the usage of property for harmful purposes.
  • One should not acquire harmful things and substances e.g wine, narcotics, magical tools etc.
  • One should abide by the rules and laws of the country in ownership and acquisition of property e.g. in Kenya it is prohibited to own elephant tusks.8 x 1= 8 marks

    (b) Circumstances under which a business contract is considered invalid in Islam

    c) A sale is not valid unless there is an offer by the seller and acceptance by the buyer or his agent.


  • The transaction is invalid ‘if the offer and acceptance do not correspond i.e if the offered ‘price’ is one thousand and the buyer ‘accepts’ for five hundred.
  • A sale is invalid if the offer or acceptance is made conditional upon an event outside the agreement e.g ‘I sell it to you. should the rain fall.’
  • Parties to the contract must have reached the age of puberty and are sane. It is not a must that both are Muslims. _
  • Parties to the contract must not be forced to make the business contract. c
  • A business contract should not involve something that is impure in itself (najasa) e.g sale of pigs.
  • It is invalid to transact something which is not useful or unlawful e.g poison, musical instruments.
  • It is not valid to sell other people’s properties without their permission.
  • Any business contract or transaction that involves riba (interest) is invalid (Q.2:275; 2:278).
  • It is not valid to make a transaction or contract that includes an invalid stipulation e.g I buy your house provided you divorce your wife.7 x 1 = 7 marks

    4.a) Measures taken to guard against hoarding


  • Open markets for competition and avoid monopoly.
  • Creating awareness in the society on the hannful effects of hoarding.
  • Introduction of stiff penalties (Taazir) against hoarders.
  • Boycotting businesses of the people who practice hoarding.
  • Naming and shaming hoarders.
  • Instilling values such as honesty and fair business practices in the people
  • Reminding business people on the importance of fearing Allah (Taqwa) in all their transactions and the punishment that await the hoarders in the hereafter.5 x 1 = 5 marks

    b) Lessons from the farewell speech of the Prophet


  • Taking of interest is unlawful.
  • All blood feuds were abolished.
  • Kind treatment to wives.
  • Brotherhood among Muslims was encouraged.
  • Sanctity of private property.
  • Oppression and injustice are prohibited.
  • Adherence to the teaching of the Quran and Sunnah.
  • Fair treatment of Servants and Slaves.
  • Equality of all believers in the sight of Allah.
  • Propagation of Islamic teachings to others.
  • Avoidance of all sins.8 x 1 = 8 marks

    (b) Ways in which Prophet Muhammad (P.b.u.h) encouraged religious tolerance


  • He accorded non Muslims freedom of worship expression association and movement.
  • He did not compel others to change their religion.
  • He was a living example of nobility and humanity to both Muslims and non Muslims.
  • He projected his exemplary character and actions that won the hearts of non believers.
  • The prophet never insulted anyone or retaliated even u_nder extreme provocation.
  • He never oppressed or persecuted anyone because of their faiths. ’
  • He declared that other peoples’ places of worship are sacred.
  • He taught against abusing other religions and their gods.
  • He advocated for fair treatment of prisoners of war.6 x 1 = 6 marks

    (c) Problems faced by Caliph Ali (R.A)


  • The strong opposition from Muawiya and his group.
  • Lack of support from the govemors who were appointed by Uthman (R.A).
  • The emergence of different groups in Islam e.g Kharijites, Shias et.c.
  • Civil wars which broke out during his caliphate i.e battle of Jamal. battle of Siffin.
  • The underground activities of the Munafiqun to undem1ine the Caliph.
  • Neutrality of many companions which led to lack of support for Ali e.g Ibn Abbas. Ibn Umar e.t.c.
  • Existence of the Murderers of Uthman (R .A) in Alis camp denied him support of many Swahabas.
  • The support of Aisha. the widow of the prophet, to Muawiyah made many people to join the camp of Muawiyah.6 x l = 6 marks

    (a) Challenges faced by Muslims in practising Islam in Kenya.


  • Infringement of freedom to practice Islam among students in some schools. For example some schools ban the wearing of hijab by Muslim girls. Others schools do not allow their students to go for prayers or force them to go to church.
  • Muslims are denied full rights as citizens of this country e.g denial of l.D cards. passport and birth certificates to genuine Kenyan citizens who are Muslims.
  • Sometimes the govemment imposes strict conditions for Muslims in acquiring these documents.
  • Discrimination on employment opportunities, both in the public and private sectors.
  • Lack of education institutions to promote Muslim educational needs such as Muslim schools. colleges and universities. 
  • Harassment by state organs such as police on suspected Muslim.
  • Scarcity of of Muslim-owned mass-media to cater for publicity and propagation needs e.g Newspapers, radio and T.V stations.
  • Scarcity of Muslim professionals and trained manpower in all disciplines including I.R.E teachers.
  • Closure of Muslim intemational charity and NGOs by the govemment which left a vacuum in meeting the needs of Muslims in education and social welfare.
  • False accusation of Muslims as terrorists by virtue of their dress code or appearance.
  • Muslims being arrested without the due process of law being followed e,g being confined in police custody without charge in court or legal representation.
  • Illegal rendition to foreign countries without due process of law.7 x l = 7 marks

    b) The achievements of the Fattimid dynasty


  • Improvement of infrastructure e.g. the building of bridges, buildings and canals in Egypt.
  • The fatimids established Al-Azhar University, which became one of the earliest institutions of higher learning in the world.
  • They founded Darull-likma which had a library and facilitated the growth of Muslim scholars and Islamic scholarship.
  • They patronized Muslim scholars in various sciences e.g Ali b. Hassan al- Haitham who became a great physist and Optician.
  • They promoted the development of Islamic architecture with great distinction e.g. the great mosque of Al-Azhar.
  • The fattimids also excelled in other aesthetic sciences such as arts, Muslim drawings, design, ceramics and curvings.
  • They established a strong naval force which helped in defending the dynasty from extemal threats.
  • Fatimids extended the territorial spread of Islam to other countries such as to Syria, Palestine and Hijaz. 
  • The fattimids distinguished themselves as most tolerant to other Muslims who did not belong to shia faith.’ 7 x 1 = 7 marks

    c) The contributions of Muslims to the development of culture in East Africa


  • They have contributed towards the growth of Kiswahili language which is greatly influenced by Arabic spoken by the early Muslims.
  • ) Muslim have shaped the dietary habits and regulation of East Africa e.g the eating of halal foods and the introduction of Muslim recipes.
  • The manner of dressing of East African peoples has been significantly influenced by Muslims. For example the introduction of Kofia and Kanzu for males as well as buibui or hijab for women. A new concept of covering nakedness (awrah) was also put in place.
  • Muslims have also influenced the material culture of this region e.g architectural designs (such as minaret), art and craft, music, songs e.g poems and didactic compositions (maulid barzanji).
  • Muslims have intermarried with other East African, people. This has promoted good neighbourliness and peaceful co-existence.
  • Introducing new regulations on interpersonal relations such as mahrim (close relatives).
  • Introduction of new calibre of leaders and specialists who replaced the old/traditional ones e.g ulama, kadhis and political leaders.
  • Introduction of new ceremonies and festivals such as Idd, Juma, nikah ceremonies.
  • Introduction of new belief system and ritual worship e.g belief in Allah alone; salat, zakat e.t.c.6 x 1 = 6 marks

    6 a) The contribution of Sheikh AL-Amin Mazrui to the development of education in East Africa


  • He was a Muslim scholar and are former, Shiekh Al-Amin carried out educational work to change the educational backwardness of Muslims in the region.
  • He opened his own private school where he taught students from all- over East Africa on various disciplines of Islamic studies. Examples of his students include Sheikh Abdallah Sale] al-Farsy and Sheikh Muhammad Kasim Mazrui.
  • He used to offer mosque darsas to urge Muslims not only to take Islamic education seriously but also westem education. He also taught many students in madrasas and mosques at the coast.
  • He defended the pursuit of westem education as being not contrary to Islamic teaching by arguing on the basis of such hadith of the prophet which urged Muslims to seek knowledge even if in China.
  • He encouraged Muslim women to seek education, especially religious knowledge.
  • He is credited for the opening of the first Arab school for the teaching of Islamic Studies.
  • He championed for the inclusion of Arabic in public schools.
  • He had in his personal library many books on Islam and donated most of them to public libraries.
  • He wrote many books both in Arabic and Kiswahili on a variety of Islamic topics to meet the educational needs of the Muslims. Examples include
  • Hidayatul Atfal (“Guidance of Children) and Masoma Ya Dini (“Religious Education”) ’
  • He promoted the teaching of Islamic Religious Education in Schools.5 x 2 = 10 marks

    b)Biography of Ibn Sina


  • His full names are Abu Ali al-Hussein Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina.
  • He was bom in 980 A.D at Afshana near Bukhara.
  • He received his early education in Bukhara.
  • By the age of 10. he was well versed in the study of the Quran and other
  • sciences.
  • He studied philosophy by reading various Greek and Islamic books.
  • He also studied logic from a famous Philosopher called Abu Abdalla Natili.
  • He attained the degree of expertise in medicine while still young.
  • He mastered theology. physics, medicine and maths at the age of I6.
  • He gained wide fame for physics.
  • He was consulted by medical practitioners on the profession
  • He taught medicine and philosophy at Asfahan. _
  • He wrote extensively both in medicine and philosophy .eg AL-Qanun-Fi-tib
  • (canon of Medicine) which was a reference book in european universities until the 17″‘ century.
  • He harmonised the Greek based Philosophy with Islamic teachings. ?
  • He died in the year 1037 A.D at the age of 57 years and buried at Hamadan.
  • He is considered to be the greatest philosopher of Islam.5 x 2 = 10 marks


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