KCSE-Past-Papers-Agriculture-2021-Paper 1 (443/1)

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

2021 Agriculture Paper 1

SECTION A (30 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

 

1. State two ways in which the foreign exchange earned from agriculture is important to Kenya.(1 mark)

2. State four effects of excessive nitrogenous fertiliser application on tomatoes. (2 marks)

4. State four ways in which water pollution caused by farming activities can be controlled.(2 marks)

5. What is meant by the term preference and choice as used in agricultural economics? (2 marks)

6. State four disadvantages of shifting cultivation.(2 marks)

7. Name four categories of nursery beds.(2 marks)

8. (a) What is meant by the term conveyance of water?(1 marks)

(b) State two ways of conveying water.(2 marks)

9. (a) What is meant by the term land tenure reform?(1 marks)

(b) State four advantages of land registration.(2 marks)

10. Name four types of landslides.(2 marks)

11. State four advantages of small scale farming in Kenya.(2 marks)

12. State four disadvantages of stall feeding.(2 marks)

13. Give four reasons why livestock farmers prepare silage.(2 marks)

14. State four reasons for carrying out minimum tillage.(2 marks)

15. Name four financial documents used in farm accounting.(2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks) Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

16. The diagrams below show certain weeds.

(a) Identify the weeds labelled F and G. (l mark)
(b) State one way in which each of the weeds labelled E and F affects the quality of livestock products.

E ……………..(l mark)

F ………………..(l mark)

(c) State the main way in which the weed labelled G interferes with farm operations. (1 mark)(l mark)

17. (a) An agronomist recommends application of l20kg N, 60kg P2O5, and 80kg O after testing a soil sample. Calculate the amount of urea (46%N), single super phosphate (20% P2O5,) and potassium oxide (50% O) that should be applied on the land.(4 marks)

(b) Distinguish between fertiliser ratio and fertiliser grade. (1 mark)

18. A farmer has a piece of land 200 m long and 36 m wide. If the farmer plants beans at a spacing of 30 cm x 15 cm, calculate the plant population on the piece of land. Show your working.(5 marks)

19. The diagram below shows a practice in agroforestry.

(a) Identify the practice.(1 marks)
(b) State the importance of the activity labelled:

I ………(1 marks)

IV………..(1 marks)

(c) Why was the soil separated as shown in the activity labelled H?(1 marks)

(d) State the main precaution Observed when covering the seedling as illustrated in III. (l mark)

SECTION C (40 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 22.

20. (a) Describe seven ways in which a farm manager can provide incentives to increase the productivity of the farm workers. (7 marks)

(b) Describe Blossom End Rot disease in tomatoes under each of the following sub-headings:

(i) symptoms (1 marks)

(ii) causes (3 marks)

(iii) control measures. (3 marks)

(c) Describe how a farmer should handle a bean crop from the time it is harvested until the dry seed is ready for storage. (6 marks)

21. (a) Give two effects of low temperature on crop growth. (2 marks)

(b) Explain four aspects of rainfall that a farmer should consider when choosing a crop to grow. (8 marks)

(c) Describe five types of layering used by farmers to propagate crops.(5 marks)

(d) Give five functions of agricultural marketing boards in Kenya.(5 marks)

22. (a) Describe rice production under each of the following sub-headings:

(i) land preparation(3 marks)

(ii) water control(3 marks)

(iii) weed control.(2 marks)

(b) Describe millet production under each of the following sub-headings:

(i) seedbed preparation (2 marks)

(ii) planting (2 marks)

(iii) harvesting. (3 marks)

(c) Explain five factors that influence mass wasting. (5 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks) Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

16. The diagrams below show certain weeds.


(a) Identify the weeds labelled F and G. (l mark)
a. F – Black Jack(Bidens Pilosa)

G – Stinnging nettle (urtica dioica)

(b) State one way in which each of the weeds labelled E and F affects the quality of livestock products.

E – Poisonous to livestock

G – Contaminants wool and fur

(c) State the main way in which the weed labelled G interferes with farm operations. (1 mark)

It irritates farm workers
17. (a) An agronomist recommends application of l20kg N, 60kg P2O5, and 80kg O after testing a soil sample. Calculate the amount of urea (46%N), single super phosphate (20% P2O5,) and potassium oxide (50% O) that should be applied on the land.(4 marks)

Urea(46% N)

120 x 100kg ÷ 46 urea = 260.87kg

46kg N – from 100 kg urea

so 120kg N → 100/46 x 120

= 260.87kg

ii. SSP(20%P2O5)

60 x 100 ÷ 20 kgSSQ = 300kg SSP

20kg P2O5 from 100kg SSP

60kg P2O5 → 100/20 x 60

= 300 kg SSP

iii. KCl (50% K2O)

80 x 100 ÷ 50 kg KCl = 160KCl

50kgK2O from 100kg KCl

so 80kg K2O → 100/50 x 80

= 160kg KCl

Plus/ more for proper calculation/ proper interpretation

(b) Distinguish between fertiliser ratio and fertiliser grade. (1 mark)

Fertilizer ratio refers to the proportion of the three primary macronutrients in a fertilizer e.g NPK(10:10:10) Fertilizer grade indicates the amount of each nutrient contained in a fertilizer e.g urea (46%N)

18. A farmer has a piece of land 200 m long and 36 m wide. If the farmer plants beans at a spacing of 30 cm x 15 cm, calculate the plant population on the piece of land. Show your working.(5 marks)

Area of land

spacing

= 36 x 200m 2

0.3n x 0.15m

=7200

0.045

= 160,000 Plants

a. Area of land

spacing

= 36 x 200m

30cm x 15cm

=(36 x 200)m 2

(0.3 x 0.15)m2

=7000

0.045

= 160,000 plants

b. Area of land

spacing

= 36 x 200m

30cm x 15cm

=(3600 x 20000)cm2

(30 x 15)cm2

720 000 000

450

= 160,000plants

c. Area of land

spacing

Area of land

= 200m x 36m = 7200m2

Spacing = 0.3 x 0.15m2

Area occupied by one crop = (0.3 x 0.15m2)

= 0.045m2

Plant population =7200

0.045

= 160, 000plants

d. Plant population = Area of land

spacing

Area of land

= 20000 x 36000 cm

= 720000000cm2

spacing = 30cm x 15cm

Area occupied by one plant = 30 x 15

= 450cm2

Plant poppulation =72000000

450cm2

= 160,000 plants 19. The diagram below shows a practice in agroforestry.

(a) Identify the practice.(1 marks)
Tree seedling transplanting/ tree planting/ transplanting

(b) State the importance of the activity labelled:

I To allow the growth of roots in the planted hole(1 marks)

IV To plant the seedling at the same depth it was in the sleeve(1 marks)

To facilitate mixing of top soil with manure for filling the planted holes

(d) State the main precaution Observed when covering the seedling as illustrated in III. (l mark)

Should allow light penetration
Materials/ sticks used should be strong enough
Should provide enough space for growth
Rails should not allow animal penetration
SECTION C (40 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 22.

20. (a) Describe seven ways in which a farm manager can provide incentives to increase the productivity of the farm workers. (7 marks)

i. Medical facilities
ii. Housing
iii. Security
iv. Rewarding good workers
v. Better remuneration
vi. Transport provision
vii. Protective clothing/uniform
viii. Bonus
ix. Safe working environment
x. Provide good working tools
xi. Provide social activities by schools for their children
(b) Describe Blossom End Rot disease in tomatoes under each of the following sub-headings:

(i) symptoms (1 marks)

(ii) causes (3 marks)

(iii) control measures. (3 marks)

i. Blossom end appears rotten, water soaked; dry
ii. Too much nitrogen in early growth stages
iii. Irregular or infrequent watering
iv. Calcium deficiency
v. Regular watering
vi. Top dressing the crop with the right amount of nitrogen
vii. Application of calcium compound fertilizers in the soil
(c) Describe how a farmer should handle a bean crop from the time it is harvested until the dry seed is ready for storage. (6 marks)

i. Threshing: Removal of beans from pods by beating with sticks
ii. Drying: Beans are dried bean plants spread on whats in the sun to dry
iii. Cleaning: To remove foreign materials before storage. by winnowing
iv. Sorting bean seeds are also sorted to separate the good from the bad
v. Dusting: Applying chemical powders on seeds to
vi. Packing – Beans are placed into containers for storage
21. (a) Give two effects of low temperature on crop growth. (2 marks)

i. Slow growth rate of crops as the process of photosynthesis is slowed.
ii. High incidence of disease infection to crops, eg. CBD, hot and cold disease of
coffee; Elgon die back/ low incident of disease
iii. Quality of crops, e.g. tea and pyrethrum is improved
iv. Covered/quality of crops is affected
(b) Explain four aspects of rainfall that a farmer should consider when choosing a crop to grow. (8 marks)

i. Rainfall reliability:/ Predictability This determines the time of land preparation and planting.
ii. Amount of rainfall is the quantity of rain that falls in a given area within a given year. Determines the type of crops to be grown
iii. Rainfall distribution is the humber of wet months in a year Influences choice of crop varieties to grow.
iv. Rainfall intensity: This is the amount of rain that falls in an area within a period ofone hour. Rainfall intensity should be correct to prevent damage to crops& soil erosion
(c) Describe five types of layering used by farmers to propagate crops.(5 marks)

i. Aerial layering/marcotting: Bark and cambial layer are removed from a section of
the branch, moist rotting medium is heaped around the section and wrapped with a polythene sheet;
ii. Tip layering: Shoot with a terminal bud is bent to the ground and covered with a layer of moist soil;
iii. Trench layering: A branch is bent, laid in a trench and held in position using pegs, and covered with a layer of moist soil;
iv. Compound/serpentine layering: a branch is bent several times and held using pegs. Bent parts are covered with a layer of moist soil:
v. Stool and mound layering: soil is heaped around the base of the stem which gives rise to new shoots;
(d) Give five functions of agricultural marketing boards in Kenya.(5 marks)

i. Regulate and control of production, of specific products.
ii. Licensing production and export.
iii. Quality control.
iv. Carrying research on different aspects of the crop or livestock in question on behalf of the government.
v. Acting as the sole agents on all matters concerning the crop or livestock.
vi. Marketing of processed products.
vii. Advising the Minister for Agriculture on the importation or exportation of the products in relation to their availability.
viii. Provide and co-ordinate different sectors of production
ix. Advising farmers on different aspects of production
x. Provide farmers with input on land prices
22. (a) Describe rice production under each of the following sub-headings:

(i) land preparation(3 marks)

Rice fields are levelled; bunds constructed around them for controlling water level
Tractor drawn rotavators are used to prepare flooded fields
Digging with jembe is also used to prepare before the fields are flooded
Flood the fields
(ii) water control(3 marks)

Water level in the field is increased from 5cm at planting time gradually to 15cm when seedlings are fully grown./Maintain water level
Water is allowed to flow slowly in the fields.
Where flow is not possible, old water should be drained and fresh water added every 2-3 weeks.
Drain water completely before harvesting
(iii) weed control.(2 marks)

Weeds are controlled by flooding.
Surviving weeds are controlled by uprooting.
Effective herbicides can also be used
(b) Describe millet production under each of the following sub-headings:

(i) seedbed preparation (2 marks)

Clearing of land;
Primary cultivation;
Secondary cultivation/ fine tilth
Prepare land early
(ii) planting (2 marks)

Planting of millet
Early; planting by broadcasting/row planting at 30×33 cm spacing
Seed rate should be 3 – 5 kg
(iii) harvesting. (3 marks)

Individual heads are cut using knives;
The heads are dried.
The dry heads are threshed
Seeds are winnowed
When heads are dry
(c) Explain five factors that influence mass wasting. (5 marks)

Seismic/earth quake shocks lead to the movement of materials down slope.
Increased overburden/deeply weathered thick/thinnly bedded rock materials are likely to move down slope.
Increase in moisture lubricates the soil.
Lack of vegetation reduces the ability of the soil to hold together.
Under cutting of the slope by excavation/mining/quarrying/construction.
Rearrangement of soil particles by living organism in the soil.
The angle of slope determines the movement of the material.
The nature of the underlying rock.

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