KCSE Past Papers 2019 Geography Paper 2 (312/2)

Questions and Answers

KCSE 2019 Geography Paper 2

Answer all the questions in this section.

1. (a) Name two rivers that supply water to Mwea-Tebere irrigation scheme.

  • River Thiba
  • River Nyamindi
  • River Murubara(b) State how government policy influenced the establishment of Mwea- Tebere irrigation scheme.

     

  • There was need to keep detainees busy.
  • I“or people to provide free labour.
  • There was need to settle landless people.
  • The need to control flood of rivers that pass through the area.
  • Increase food production.
  • For maximum utilization of land.
  • To fully utilize the black cotton soil.2 (a) Define the term Fisheries.

     

  • Fisheries are water bodies where exploitation of aquatic organisms/ life is carried out.(b) Name three countries in Southern Africa that are important for marine harvesting.

     

  • South Africa. 
  • Namibia Angola.3 (a) What is renewable source of energy?,p>
  • A renewable energy source 1s that source that can be regenerated/ rep1enished//inexhaustible (used over a long period of time).(b) Name three main Hydro Electric power stations along River Tana.

     

  • Masinga
  • Kamburu
  • Gitaru Kindaruma Kiambere
  • Tana4 (a) Define internal trade

     

  • This is the exchange of goods and services within a country.(b) Give three ways in which Kenya has benefited from regional trade.

     

  • It earns foreign exchange from exports.
  • Increases employment opportunities.
  • Opens up large market for goods.
  • It reduces tariffs making goods cheaper.
  • It promotes industrial growth and development.
  • Enhances international cooperation/political understanding.
  • Promotes exchange of research findings/ideas.
  • It readily avails goods/services needed by the people.5 (a) Outline three factors that influence development of linear settlement pattern.

     

  • People settle along rivers for water provision.
  • People settle along roads/railway line for ease of transport.
  • People settle along lakes/sea shores for fishing activities./tourism
  • People settle along ridges for easy house construction/security.
  • People settle along the foot/base/bottom of escarpments for water/ farming/ease of construction.
  • People settle along forest fringes to access forest products.(b) Give two differences between the ports of Mombasa and Rotterdam.

     

  • Rotterdam handles more cargo than Mombasa.
  • Rotterdam has up to date cargo handling technology while Mombasa is less mechanized.
  • Rotterdam has room for expansion while Mombasa has limited space.
  • Rotterdam is linked by road, railway, pipeline, air as well as waterways while Mombasa is linked by road, railway, pipeline and air.
  • Rotterdam exports mainly manufactured goods while Mombasa exports mainly raw materials.
  • Rotterdam serves an hinterland of developed countries while Mombasa serves an hinterland of developing countries.6 (a) (i) Apart from comparative line graph, name four other methods that can be used to represent the above data.

     

  • Pie chart/divided circles
  • Comparative bar graph/compound bar graph/cumulative
  • Divided rectangle
  • Proportional circles(ii) Using a vertical scale of 1cm to represent 20,000 tonnes, draw a comparative line graph to represent the above data.

    Kenya’s Agricultural production in ‘000 tonnes between 2008 and 2011.

    (iii) State three advantages of using line graphs to represent statistical data.

     

  • They are easy to draw/construct.
  • They allow comparison.
  • They are easy to read and interpret.
  • They give clear visual impression.
  • They can be used to show a wide range of data.(b) (i) Give reasons that may have led to the increase in production of dairy products between 2010 and 2011

     

  • Prompt payment to dairy farmers.
  • Availability of capital
  • Affordable veterinary services
  • Use of high quality feeds
  • Improved managerial skills
  • High rainfall
  • Control of pests
  • Control of diseases
  • Large market
  • Improved technical knowhow
  • Exotic breeds
  • Adequate foliage for animals(c) Give four physical conditions that favour dairy farming in Kenya.

     

  • Low/moderate/high temperatures/ 15° 30°C/ 10°C
  • 30°C /cool/warm/hot conditions/climate.
  • Moderate/high rainfall/500mm
  • 2000mm.
  • Plenty of nutritious grass/fodder.
  • Reliable/constant supply of water.
  • Volcanic/loamy/light clay soils for growth of quality of grass throughout the year.
  • Gently sloping/undulating landscape
  • Well drained soils
  • Low/high altitude.7. (a) (i) Apart from Ghana, name two countries in Africa where cocoa is grown.

     

  • Nigeria
  • Cote de Ivoire/ Ivory Coast
  • Cameroon
  • Guinea
  • Togo
  • Principe and Sao Tome(ii) State five physical conditions that favour cocoa farming in Ghana.

     

  • High and well distributed rainfall /1000-1500mm. 
  • High temperatures 21°C to 30*C./warm/hot conditions Protection from strong winds that blow away pods.
  • High relative humidity./ 70%-80%
  • Deep, well drained fertile/loamy soils/volcanic/lightly clay/soil rich in potassium.
  • A sunny period for ripening.
  • Low altitude 0-750 metres above sea level. Undulating landscape
  • Protection of young plants from sunshine.b (i) Describe the process of cocoa cultivation in Ghana.

     

  • Vegetation/land is cleared and ploughed.
  • Cocoa trees are grown from seedlings sown in nurseries.
  • Holes are dug on the farm.
  • The seedlings are allowed to grow to a height of 28-30 cm before they are transplanted to the field.
  • Seedlings are planted in rows, three metres apart in cleared forest zones.
  • Some cocoa trees are grown from cuttings, which are placed directly in cleared forest.
  • The crops are weeded, pruned and manured to improve the quality of the bean and prolong life of the tree. The trees are protected from insects/pests/fungi by spraying with insecticides/fungicides.
  • The trees begin to produce mature pods from five years, up to 30
  • 40 years.
  • The cocoa pods grow on the trunk and the main branches of a tree.
  • They become yellowish/orange when ripe, there is no set time for ripening. Both flowering and ripening can take place at the same period.
  • There are two main harvesting periods. That is between September and February and between May and August.
  • The crop is harvested manually using long sharp knives.(ii) Give three uses of cocoa.

     

  • It is used as a beverage. It is used to manufacture cosmetics.
  • It is used in baking/confectionary.
  • It is used to make sweets/ice/cream/flavourings.
  • It is used as animal feed.
  • It is used as a soft drink.
  • It is used in production of drugs/medicine.
  • It is used in production of alcohol
  • It is used in production of fertilizer
  • It is used in mulching.C (i) Explain three human problems faced by cocoa farming in Ghana.

     

  • At times cocoa farmers are demoralized because they do not get good price for their beans due to world price fluctuations.
  • During the rainy seasons, the feeder roads become impassable leading to delays in delivering the crop.
  • The trees are attacked by pests and diseases which destroy the trees, e.g. black pod and swollen shoot.
  • The low prices cannot sustain the farmers hence there has been a slow drift into better paying jobs in industries./discourages farmers.
  • Low labour supply during harvesting season which increases cost of production.
  • The poor management of cocoa farms leads to low production.
  • Competition for land from other crops leads to low production.
  • The limited storage facilities leads to wastage/spoilage.
  • The poor extension services leads to low quality cocoa production.
  • Competition from other beverages lowers market for cocoa.
  • High cost of farm inputs lowers production of cocoa/lowers profit.(ii) Give ways in which cocoa farming has benefited the government of Ghana.

     

  • Cocoa is exported to earn foreign exchange.
  • It provides employment to the people.
  • It has promoted industrialization, e.g. beverage industries.
  • It has boosted trade by increasing Ghana’s exports.
  • It has led to development of roads/railway/ports.
  • It is a source of revenue to the government.
  • It has promoted development of social amenities.
  • It has led development of urban centres/towns.8. (a) (i) Name the game reserve marked X

     

  • Marsabit(ii) Name the marine reserve marked Y

     

  • Malindi/Watamu Marine Reserve. (iii) Name the national park marked Z 
  • Amboseli National Parkb (i) Apart from establishing national parks, state four ways in which the government of Kenya conserves wildlife.

     

  • Setting up the Kenya wildlife service/anti poaching units which conserves wildlife.
  • Creating the Ministry of Tourism to coordinate management of wildlife.
  • Legislations/banning/controlling game hunting/trade in wildlife products.
  • It has created public awareness of wildlife conservation through media/wildlife clubs/conservation education centres.
  • It has established Kenya rangeland ecological monitoring unit.
  • It has encouraged individuals/communities to set up conservancies and sanctuaries.
  • Ratifying international conventions e.g. cities which conserve wildlife
  • Registering NGOs which support protection.
  • Intensifying research on wildlife conservation.(ii) State five factors influencing the distribution of wildlife in East Africa.

     

  • Different climates will influence varied wildlife.
  • Varied relief will influence different types of wildlife.
  • Different types of soils influence varied vegetation/wild animals.
  • Drainage supports a wide variety of plants and animals.
  • Human activities are largely responsible for survival and distribution of wildlife
  • Different types of vegetation after habitat for different animals.
  • The policies of Governments.C. Outline ways in which the wild animals are of significance to the economy of Kenya.

     

  • They earn the country foreign exchange from tourism.
  • It provides employment to the people in the national park/ tourists hotels.
  • They provide game meat/food for local consumption/ export.
  • National parks/game reserves are used for scientific studies and research.
  • Wild animals provide a balanced ecosystem in Kenya
  • They earn the government revenue.
  • Some animals provide raw maternal for industries.
  • The conservation of wild animals stimulates development of roads/ increased accessibility in some otherwise remote areas.
  • Wild animals help provide alternative land use in semi
  • arid areas not suitable for agriculture.
  • Vegetation/land is cleared and ploughed.
  • Cocoa trees are grown from seedlings sown in nurseries.
  • Holes are dug on the farm.
  • The seedlings are allowed to grow to a height of 28
  • 30 cm before they are transplanted to the field.
  • Seedlings are planted in rows, three metres apart in cleared forest zones.
  • Some cocoa trees are grown from cuttings, which are placed directly in cleared forest.
  • The crops are weeded, pruned and manured to improve the quality of the bean and prolong life of the tree.
  • The trees are protected from insects/pests/fungi by spraying with insecticides/fungicides.
  • The trees begin to produce mature pods from five years, up to 30
  • 40 years.
  • The cocoa pods grow on the trunk and the main branches of a tree.
  • They become yellowish/orange when ripe, there is no set time for ripening. Both flowering and ripening can take place at the same period.
  • There are two main harvesting periods. That is between September and February and between May and August.
  • The crop is harvested manually using long sharp knives.d. Discuss the factors that favour tourism in Switzerland under the following subheadings.

    (i) Central location

    Switzerland is centrally located within Europe which makes her accessible to other European countries who form a bulk of her international tourists.

    (ii) Climate

    It has a double season of winters and summers that attract tourists all year round.

    The sunny summer conditions favour mountaineering / the winters are suitable for winter sports.

    (iii) Political neutrality

    Switzerland is not aligned to any political conflicts in the world. This removes any restrictions to the country as a tourist destination hence it attracts tourists from any country in the world.

    9 (a) What is an industry?

     

  • Industry is an enterprise that enables the production of goods and services for consumption / sale.(b) (i) Name two car manufacturing zones in Japan.

     

  • Tokyo — Yokohama
  • Osaka — Kobe-Kyoto
  • Nagoya(ii) Explain four human factors which have favoured the development of car manufacturing industry in Japan.

     

  • The country has adequate capital to invest in the car industry.
  • The advanced technology and research has led to efficient methods of production of high quality cars at minimum costs.
  • Japan produces fuel
  • saving vehicles leading to a high demand for them in the world market.
  • Japan has highly skilled and industrious work force which has promoted massive production of quality vehicles.
  • The government policy/peace and stability has encouraged industrialization.
  • The presence of large population with a high purchasing power provides a large local market for the cars.
  • The efficient transport system, which eases transportation of raw materials.
  • The large HEP production for industrial energy.
  • The rise of emperor Meiji who promoted industrial development.
  • Education system that has given rise to advanced technology/ skilled man-power.(c) Explain the following problems of industrialization in the developing countries.

    (i) Raw materials

     

  • Agricultural raw materials fluctuate with seasons hence the industries may have insufficient raw materials during low season.
  • Some industries relying on natural resources suffer closure/low production when the natural resources get exhausted.
  • Industries relying on imported materials face shortage when the allocation for importation is restricted.
  • Political differences between countries may lead to limited supply of raw materials to the rival country leading to shortage.(ii) inadequate skilled manpower

     

  • Most developing countries have limited industrial culture/ education to import relevant skills for industrialization.
  • They rely on expatriates who are expensive to hire/maintain/un reliable.
  • Most countries have inadequate managerial skills to run industries resulting to mismanagement /embezzlement of funds.(d) Outline ways in which your class would prepare for a field study in one of the industries in your country.

     

  • Making a reconnaissance./Pre-visit
  • Getting permission from the school/host authorities.
  • Organizing for transport.
  • Identifying /assemb1ing tools/items to carry.
  • Making a work schedule.
  • Preparing a questionnaire / interview questions.
  • Identifying the industry Reading on the topic.
  • Formulating objectives ‘hypothesis
  • Making a route map
  • Selection of data collection methods.
  • Selection of data recording methods.10. (a) (i) What is communication?

     

  • Communication is the process of passing information between two or more persons.(ii) Name four types of mass communication.

     

  • Radio
  • Television
  • Internet
  • Newspapers/magazines
  • Films/videos
  • Billboards/banners/posters/flyers.(b) Explain the role of communication in the economic development of Africa.

     

  • Communication enhances trade in that traders are able to communicate to get raw materials/to sell their products.
  • Many people are employed in the communication sector leading to improvement in their standards of living.
  • Communication has helped in promoting international/domestic tourism leading to gain in foreign exchange/revenue.
  • Governments are able to disseminate information through the media (e.g. information related to environmental conservation/educational programmes.) for suitable economic response.
  • Communication promotes international relations which enhances trade between Africa and other countries.
  • Communication enhances political stability for economic growth.(c) State five problems facing communication in Africa.

     

  • Inefficient/obsolete communication systems.
  • Inadequate capital to install communication equipment.
  • Language barriers due to diverse ethnic backgrounds.
  • Inappropriate legislation on communication.
  • Inadequate communication facilities..
  • Inadequate skilled labour.
  • Vandalism/destruction of communication facilities in some African countries due to civil wars/terrorism.
  • The varied physical landscape.
  • Political interference
  • Low technological know-how.(d) Explain three efforts being made to solve the problems facing communication in Africa.

     

  • Liberalization of communication sector, leading to modernization of the communication systems.
  • Establishment of trading blocs which have created favourable conditions for improving communication between member states.
  • Installing wireless telephones instead of copper wires which are prone to vandalism.
  • Regional development initiatives are being undertaken to improve information and communication technology in the continent,
  • Many African countries have established satellites facilities/ radio/ television boosters in order to improve communication.
  • Many African countries are adopting international languages such as French and English in order to reduce language barriers.
  • Many African countries are training personnel on modern skills.
  • Establishing peace missions to restore political stability thus enhance development of communication.
  • Encouraging investors to invest in communication. 
(Visited 171 times, 1 visits today)
Share this:

Written by