KCSE Past Papers 2017 HRE Paper 1
2017 Hindu Religious Education – 1
1. a) Attributes of Paramatma according to the Kena Upanishad.
i. Paramatma is eternal
ii. Paramatma is the creator
iii. He is liberator
iv. He is the provider/sustainer of the universe
v. He is powerful
vi. He is infinite
vii. He is incomprehensible
viii. He is beyond the unknown
ix. He is all knowledgeable.
b) Basic elements of creation.
c) Why Hindus revere Murtiin aplace of worship.
i. It is a way of expressing love for Paramatma.
ii. Hindus revere murti to follow the rules according to the scriptures
iii. The rituals of Pranpratishta are performed on the murti/it is considered a living deity.
iv. It is a way of fixing the mind on God/it draws the minds away from other sense objects.
v. To develop love of a chosen idol.
vi. Daily puja as given in Aagams is performed.
vii. Such reverence elevated the devotee upto the final stage/moksha.
2. a) Childhood of Ciuru Nanak Dev Ji.
i. Guru Nanak was born in Talwandi in Punjab.
ii. On his birth he smiled/did not cry.
iii. At the age of nine his father wanted him to wear ‘Janeu’.
iv. The priest said that ‘Janeu’ will make him a better person.
v. He refused to wear Janeu.
vi. His father gave him money to do business/on the way he saw some holy men who were hungry.
vii. He bought them food/fed them/this disappointed his father.
viii. He started to write poems in praise of God.
ix. One day when He was grazing cows, he sat under a tree/meditated while the cows ate the crops in a nearby farm.
x. The farmer complained but after a short while crops were restored as before the farmer could not believe this.
xi. The people started to believe that Nanak is not an ordinary child.
b) How Dashavatar shows evolution of life in the Universe
i. Matsya — being in water
ii. Kurma — being half water/half land
iii. Vara/ia — land
iv. Narsimha — half man/half animal
v. Vumdn — man
vi. Parshuram — superman
vii. Rama — ideal man
viii. Krishna — knowledgeable man
ix. Buddha — peace
x. Still to manifest
c) Reasons why Paramatma manifests Himself.
i. To protect His devotees/humanity
ii. To contain/destroy evil
iii. To give Divine knowledge
iv. To give practical lessons
v. To teach/promote ethics/morality
vi. To teach a contented life
vii. To restore cosmic order
viii. To save the world from destruction/protect Dharma
ix. To bring peace/order
3. a) The teachings of Kalpasutra.
i. It teaches about universal love
ii. All living beings must be loved
iii. Universe is the field of evolution for all
iv. It teaches not to over exploit but to protect natural resources
v. To practice non-violence in thought/word/ speech
vi. One should engage in spiritual practices
vii. Worldly attachment leads to greed/envy
viii. Instill identity by appreciating the historical lineage
ix. Contains the biographies of Tirthankars
x. Outlines rules for Jain monks
xi. Teaches reverence to the enlightened souls.
b) Importance of Smntis to hindus
i. Through Smritis Divine knowledge has been preserved/protected
ii. Smritis show ways to get enlightenment
iii. They are given directly by Paramatma
iv. Smritis guide the way of life.
c) Incidences from the Jtamoyonathat can assist Kenyans to promote pa- triotism in the society today.
i. When Rama was a Prince he protected Ayodhya by killing the demons who were harassing the citizens.
ii. They protected the Brahmins who were not allowed to do holy rites and rituals and killed those who were harassing them.
iii. He had to go to the forest but left the kingdom in the safe keeping of Bharat who ruled from an ashram according to Rama’s instructions.
iv. Rama defeated Ravan and could have become the king but he chose to return to Ayodhya because of his loyalty to his country.
V. During his reign there were no crimes. People could leave their homes unattended without any worries of theft.
vi. There was no corruption in the society.
Vii. He listened to the voice of his citizens and kept Ayodhaya a free society.
Viii. He instructed his sons and abdicated Ayodhya when the time came for him to retire.
4. a) Five principles of Hinduism
i. Paramatma — Creator, God
ii. Prarthana — Prayer, worship
iii. Purusharth — Effort
iv. Pranidaya — Non-violence, ahimsa
v. Punarjanma — Reincarnation
b) Reasons why Hindus are encouraged to practice vegetarianism
i. Every life is sacred — whether animate or inanimate
ii. No one should injure or harm other beings.
iii. Animals have their lives and to cut them short in violence
iv. When an animal is killed it is afraid, fearful and sad. When that animal is eaten all the negative vibrations it had are inherited by the ones who consume it.
v. Meat is not satric food. It is rajasic, so induces laziness, sloth and such other attitudes.
vi. Can bring guilt and violence in the mind when an animal is killed
vii. Can disturb meditation.
viii. Killing an animal collects bad Karma.
ix. All beings want’to live and not die unnaturally.
c) The four elements of Purusharth.
i. Dharma — daily duties observing the ten principles
ii. Artha — refers to wealth, wealth is needed for the society to function/gov- ernment/schools/homes creation of wealth should be pursued ethically and morally. Artha must be used in a manner that supports the progress of society.
iii. Kaam — refers to the satisfaction of worldly desires.
iv. Moksha — is a state of unending bliss/liberation, it means freedom from suffering. Man’s ultimate aim is to achieve Moksha.
5. a) Ways in which Aparigraha is practiced.
i. By not having any attachment to wealth.
ii. By not gathering unnecessary worldly things/materials
iii. By not using unjust means to acquire things.
iv. Aparigraha is practiced by giving charity.
v. By not keeping surplus things/food/possessions.
vi. By not wasting food.
vii. By not collecting unnecessary information.
viii. By not keeping grudges.
ix. Aparigraha is practiced by being humble/avoid pride/greed.
b) Daily duties of devotees.
i. To maintain physical cleanliness/healthy habits.
ii. To eat healthy/balanced diet.
iii. To worship daily at home.
iv. Visit the temple every day.
v. Meditate/counting beads.
vi. To practice Yoga exercises/other types.
vii. Do good deeds.
viii. Study scriptures.
c) Duties of an ideal student.
i. To wear sacred thread which will remind him of his duties
ii. To observe non-violence
iii. Always speak the truth
iv. To be honest in word, deed, thought
v. To abstain from sexual activities
vi. Wake up early, bow before the Guru.
vii. Study hard for acquisition of knowledge.
6. a) The concept of Yoga in Hinduism.
i. Yoga means union with the supreme/universal consciousness/spirit
ii. It is a system to get physical well being
iii. It is a system to control thoughts in our minds.
iv. Through Yoga one achieves mental peace.
v. It helps in meditation
vi. It leads spiritual uplifting.
vii. One can achieve emotional balance
viii. Yoga does not prevent one from doing his/her work/duties.
b) Forms of Bhakti yoga.
i. Shravanam — listening to Lord’s words — Pariksheet.
ii. Keertam — singing the praise of Lord God — Chaitanya, meera, Guru Nanak
iii. Smaranam — Arjuna – Remembering — Prahlad
iv. Pad seranam — daxmi — Hanuman
v. Archanam — arti — River Ganges
vi. Vandanam — Reverence — Akrura — Vidur — Kunti
vii. Daasyam — Hanuman — as an instrument of God’s work
viii. Sakhyam — Arjun — sudama — friend — Gopals
ix. Atma nivodam — Completely merged in God’s creation — King Bali, Naisimha.
c) Qualities of a Yogi as depicted in both Buddhism and Hinduism.
iii. Focused on getting enlightenment
iv. Love all beings
v. Has deep knowledge of scriptures
vi. Is disciplined
vii. Content and satisfied with the way his life is
viii. Is unattached/detached
ix. A witness to all that happens around him
x. Is not emotional
xi. Has self-control/can control his mind
xii. Always mindful of the welfare of the society.