- Section AAnswer ALL the questions in this section. (25 marks)
1. (a) Give two uses of diamond.
- For making jewellery.
- For polishing metals/abbrasive – For making cutting/drilling instruments.(Any 2 x 1 : marks)
(b) Identify three problems facing diamond mining in South Africa.
- Fluctuation of prices in the world market.
- Low mineral content in the ore
- High cost of mining/processing / deep miner.
- Reducing/depleting reserves.
- Competition of skilled labour with other sectors of the economy.
- Striking workers.(Any 3 x 1 : 3 marks)
2. (a) Apart from coniferous forests, name two other types of natural forests.
- Tropical hardwood forests/ Equatorial forest.
- Temperature hardwood forests / tropical monsoon forests.
- Mixed forests.
- Montane forests.
- Mangrove forests.
- Temperate decidous.
- Mediterenean forests.
- Warm temperate evergreen.(2 x 1 = 2 marks)
(b) State three characteristics of coniferous forests which favour their exploitation.
- The tree are light in weight.
- The trees occur in pure stand
- There is little undergrowth.
- The trees have straight trunk.
- The trees are tall.
- The trees are soft.(Any 3 x 1 : 3 marks)
Use the map of East Africa below to answer question (a).
(a) Name the game reserves marked P, G and R.
p – Bokora
Q – Boni
R – Selous (3 x 1 = 3 marks)
(b) State two factors which inﬂuence the distribution of wildlife in East Africa.
- Fairly level grounds favour some animals / rugged terrain discourages some of them.
- Vegetation variation/distribution inﬂuences the type of wild animals/birds found in an area.
- Drainage of an area inﬂuences the distribution/population of different types of species of plants/animals/birds.
- Human activities conserve/destroy wildlife habitats/wildlife inﬂuencing the population/distribution.
- The soil of a place determines the plant life which inﬂuence wild animals/birds.
- The different types of climate inﬂuence the distribution/type of plants/animals/ birds.
- Change of altitude leads to variation in vegetation types/type of wild animals.
- In high altitude areas windward slopes are forested / the leeward slopes have grasslands.(2 x l = 2 marks)
4 (a) Give two reasons why the geothermal power has not been fully exploited in Kenya.
- The country faces a shortage of capital/inadequate capital required for exploitation.
- There is shortage of skilled personnel as the country relies on expatriates.
- The country faces low level of technology which hinders expli”“”” “” “f “‘ ” energy.- Most of the potential sites are found in remote/inaccessible areas which makes it difﬁcult/expensive.
(2 x 1 = 2 marks)
State three causes of energy crisis in the world.
- There is a high demand for oil.
- There are embargoes/controls oil production by the oil producing countries.
- There is de-regulation of oil prices by the suppliers.
- There is unequal natural pattern of crude oil occurrence.
- There is political instability/wars in some of the oil producing countries. (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)5. (a) Identify the two types of internal trade.
– Retail trade
– Wholesale trade
(2 x 1 = 2 marks)
(b) Give three factors that limit trade among the member states of the Common Market for Eastern and Southem Africa (COMESA).
- Poor infrastructure/transport slows/delays movement of goods/services.
- Difference in tariffs/custom duties hinders trading activities.
- Difference in currency makes transactions difﬁcult.
- Production of similar/duplication of goods limits trade.
- Different levels of industrial development creates imbalance in trade.
- Movement barriers limit free movement of people/goods/services.
- Different political ideologies/political instability/insecurity.(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
Answer question 6 and other TWO questions from this section.
6. Study the photograph below and use it to answer question (a).
(a) (i) Identify the type of photograph shown above.
Ground general view/Ground oblique. (1 mark)
(ii) Name the type of settlement shown on the photograph.
Informal settlement/urban/slum. (1 mark)
(iii) What time of the day was the photograph taken.
Afternoon/mid morning. (1 mark)
(iv) Draw a rectangle measuring 15 cm by 10 cm. On it, sketch and label ﬁve human features shown on the photograph.
- Drawing a rectangle correctly (1 mark)Roads
(Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)
(b) Explain four economic factors that inﬂuence settlement.
- Mining/ﬁshing/water points/fertile soils attracts workers who settle near by.
- Trade leads to development of market centres thereby attracting many people.
- Industrialisation leads to creation of jobs hence encouraging many people to live
- Transportation results to accessibility of services/ goods thus attracting more
- Agriculture leads to siting of collection centres hence development of urban
- Administration provides security thereby encouraging settlement.
- To sustain nomadic pastoralism, temporary settlements are put up.(Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)
(c) Describe four negative effects of urbanisation.
– Inadequate housing leads to development of slums/shanties in urban centres / resulting in delays.
- There is trafﬁc congestion in urban centres due to poorly planned roads/trafﬁc control systems resulting in delays.
- Unemployment in urban centres leads to high crime rate/prostitution.
- There is pollution in urban centres due in dumping of garbage/disposal of waste into drainage systems/noise from vehicles and industries/emission of smoke from vehicles and industries.
- There is strain on social amenities in urban centres due to rapid population growth.
- There are street families in the urban centres due to poverty.
- Cultural erosion due to cosmopolitan population.(Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)
7. (a)Explain three social factors that inﬂuence agriculture.
- Gender inﬂuences productivity as the produce will depend on effort of the gender involved.
- Some religious beliefs determine the type of livestock farming since they discourage rearing of cenain animals.
- The culture of a people determines the type of crops grown/livestock kept in order to meet their dietary needs.
- Land tenure system allows/limits individuals/communities to use the available land thus increasing/decreasing produce.
- The interaction between people leads to adoption of new techniques in fanning / new foods.(Any 3 x 2 = 6 marks)
(b) (i) Describe the cultivation of oil palm from land preparation to harvesting.
- The nursery is prepared where the oil palm seeds are planted.
- The land is cleared of vegetation /ploughed
- The holes are dug with spacing of 9m X 9m.
- The seedling are transplanted from the nursery into the holes.
- Weeding/spraying is done regularly to protect the plants against pests/disease.
- Manuring/application of fertilizers.
- The maturing trees ﬂower/bear fruits after three years.
- The mature/ripe fruits are harvested using a curved knife/chisch/hook. (7 X l =7 marks)(ii) Give three uses of palm oil.
- Used as a lubricant.
- Used in phamaceutical.
- As a cleansing agent in the tin industry.
- Used as food.
- Making margarine/cooking fat.
- Making soap.
- Making candles.
- Making cosmetics.
- Used in the confectionery industry.(c) Explain three reasons why horticultural farming is encouraged in Kenya.
- To earn foreign exchange which help to improve the economy.
- To create employment which enables people earn income hence improve their living standards/reduces unemployment.
- To provide raw materials which support the development of related industries.
- To enable farmers with small pieces of land earn high income.
- To improve food supply in the country thereby ensuring food security.(Any 3 x 2 = 6 marks)
(d) Give three factors which favours beef farming in the Nyika plateau.
- Presence of watering points/rivers/swamps.
- There are large tracks of ﬂat land with natural grass.
- The local people who keep livestock as their occupation.
- The semi-arid conditions of the area favour beef cattle keeping.
- There are ranching schemes which control grazing/spreading of diseases/pests.(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
a) Explain four ways in which land is being rehabilitated in Kenya.
- By ﬁlling open pits/land scaping in order to be used for farming/settlement.
- By constructing terraces thereby reducing the speed of surface runoff.
- By planting trees / grass strips on degraded land thereby protecting it against the agents of erosion.
- By building gabions in order to hold/trap the soil carried by water.
- By constructing dykes along river banks/dams across rivers in order to control ﬂoods.
- By supplying manure /fertilizer on derelict land in order to restore its fertility.
- By irrigating semi-arid areas/during dry seasons in order to provide water required for crop growth.
- Bush fallowing to allow land to regia.n fertility.
- Mulching / cover crops/ cut off drains to retain soil moisture/ add humus.
- Drainage trenches to remove excess water from the land.
- Controlled grazing to allow regeneration of pastures. (Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)(b) (i) State two ways in which the salinity of the polders is reduced in the Netherlands.
– Chemicals are applied to lower salts in the soils.
– Fresh water is ﬂashed to the soils to remove/dilute the excess salts.
– Reeds are planted to use up the excess salts.
– Continuous pumping of water from the polders.
(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
(ii) Explain four ways in which the Zuyder Zee project beneﬁts the Netherlands.
- Reclamation has increased the size of the land which is used for farming/ settlement.
- The reclaimed land has increased agricultural output hence more food/ raw materials for industries.
- Damming created a freshwater lake thus improving the supply of water for domestic/industrial use/ lowering salinity of the soil.
- It has led to employment of many people thus improving their standards of living.
- Roads have been constructed thus improving transportation.
- Reclamation has created sceneries that have become tourists attractions thereby earning foreign exchange.
- Construction of the great dyke shortened the coastal distance. It also controlled the disastrous ﬂoods. (Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)(c) You intend to carry out a ﬁeld study on irrigation farming in Mwea Tebere Irrigation scheme.
(i) Identify the two types of hypothesis you would develop for the study. Alternative/substantive/positive.
- Null / negative. Question form. (2 x 1 = 2 marks)(ii) Name three crops grown in the scheme you are likely to identify.
- Water melons
- Onions (3 x l = 3 marks)(iii) Give reasons why you would sample the area of study. (2 marks)
- It is cheaper to study portions of the scheme.
- It saves the amount of time spent on the study.
- I brings out the details of the area under study.
- It enables one to make generalised conclusion about the area under study. (2 x 1 = 2 marks)9. (a) Deﬁne the term ﬁshing.
- It is the extraction/exploitation of aquatic animals/ﬁsh. (2 marks)(b) Explain two ways in which each of the following factors negatively affect ﬁshing in Kenya.
(i) Agricultural activities
- Poor farming methods cause soil erosion thereby leading to siltation of the lakes/rivers which hinders the movement of ﬁshing vessels/ death of ﬁsh.
- Agro-chemicals used on farms were washed into the lakes/rivers thus polluting the water/kill ﬁsh/eutrophication.
- Abstraction of water from the river/lakes for irrigation reduces the level of the water thereby limiting the types of ﬁsh species.(Any 2 x 2 = 4 marks)
(ii) Water Weeds
– The growth of the weeds on the surface of the water harbours dangerous animal/predators thereby scaring away the ﬁshermen.
– The weeds growing on the water form a thick barrier/insulate the water thereby hindering the amount of sunlight required for the growth of Planktons
– The weeds on the water choke the ﬁshing vessels thus hindering their movement.
– The Weeds compete for oxygen with ﬁsh which leads to death of ﬁsh.
(Any 2 x 2 = 4 marks)
(C) Use the map of North-West Atlantic ﬁshing ground to answer question (c) (ii) and (iii).
- (i) Give three types of ﬁsh species caught in the North-West Atlantic ﬁshing ground.– Shell ﬁsh
(11) Name the ocean currents marked.
M – Cold Labrador current (l mark)
N – Warm Gulf Stream (l mark)
(ii) Explain two ways in which the convergence of ocean currents marked M and N inﬂuence ﬁshing. (4 marks)
– It causes upwelling of water which increases supply of oxygen/minerals for Planktons required for growth of ﬁsh hence presence of alot of ﬁsh/ many species of ﬁsh.
– The warm current raises the temperature of the ocean water making it ice-free thereby encouraging ﬁshing throughout the year.
– The cold current carries minerals which encourage growth of Planktons thus food for ﬁsh thus a lot of ﬁsh.
– It causes cool conditions/temperatures thereby favouring the growth of Planktons required by ﬁsh hence presence of a lot of ﬁsh / many species. (Any 2 x 2 = 4 marks)
(d) Give three differences between ﬁshing in Kenya and Japan.
– In Kenya there is low level of technology/mechanization while in Japan there is advance/efﬁcient technology.
– In Kenya ﬁshing is done on small scale while in Japan ﬁshing is down on large scale.
– In Kenya there is a small domestic/external market while in Japan there is large domestic/external market.
– In Kenya few people market their ﬁsh through co-operatives while in Japan marketing is mainly done through co-operatives.
– In Kenya ﬁshing is mainly done near the continental shelf/shallow sea waters / lakes while in Japan ﬁshing it is mainly deep sea ﬁshing.
– In Kenya ﬁshermen face stiff competition from foreigners while in Japan there is little competition from foreigners.
– In Kenya there are few variety of marine species while in Japan the species are many.
– In Kenya the ﬁsh eating culture is limited while in Japan it is widespread.
– In Kenya there is limited research while in Japan it is extensive.
– In Kenya ﬁsh farming is less developed while in Japan it is highly developed.
(Any 3 x 2 = 6 marks)
l0. (a) What is environmental management.
- These are measures/controls taken to ensure sustainable utilisation of resources in a given environment./ The planning and implementation of effective and proper
- utilization of the available resources in the environment. (2 marks)(b) (i) Explain four negative effects of ﬂoods.
– Flooding leads to loss of life/destruction of property therebv causing human suffering/misery.
– It causes destruction of vegetation on slopes thereby enhancing soil erosion.
– It creates pools of water on the land surface forming breeding grounds for pests which causes diseases to people/animals.
– It leads to water logging/leaching hence causing soil infertility.
– It leads to destruction of acquatic habitats hence reduced ﬁsh production.
– It causes ﬂooding of settlements thereby leading to new temporary homes/ displacement.
– It destroys transport/communication network thereby hindering movement of goods/services.
– Floods pollutes sources of water/land which causes water borne diseasesl eyesore.
– Floods wash away crops resulting in food shortage.
(Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)
State two measures being taken to combat lightning.
– By educating the masses on the precautions to take during rains/avoid sheltering under trees/playing games and rain.
– By installing of lightning arrestors
– By launching sound rocket with electronic sensors in thunderstorm prone areas.
– By spraying of carbon iv oxide/silver iodide in the atmosphere to disperse the clouds.
(Any 2 x l = 2 marks)
(c) Explain the signiﬁcance of conserving the environment.
- To ensure effective utilisation of the available resources to avoid wastage/depletion.
- To sustain resources needed by human kind.
- To reduce pollution which causes diseases to animals/plants resulting into good health/prolonged life.
- To protect the endangered plant/animal species. Preserving them for posterity.
- To preserve the scenic value/beauty of landscape/wildlife inorder to promote tourism.
- To protect the water catchment areas/wetlands inorder to preserve water sources/ maintain water cycle.(Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)
(d) Your Geography class carried out a ﬁeldwork on ﬂoods along a river.
(i) Name two types of ﬁeld work they could have used.
– ﬁeld study
– ﬁeld excursion/ﬁeld visit/ﬁeld trip. 2 x l = 2 marks
(ii) Give three advantages of studying ﬂoods through ﬁeldwork. (3 marks)
– The leamers get ﬁrst hand information.
– The learners appreciate/interact with environment.
– Helps breaks the classroom monotony/arouses interest.
– The learners practice/acquire skills.
– It enhances learners visual memory.
(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)