Business Studies (565/2)
1. (a) Beneﬁts that a ﬁrm may enjoy by preparing a business plan include:
(i) Sourcing for ﬁnance/capital/loans. It can be used to convince ﬁnancial institutions and investors to fund the ﬁrm’s operations.
(ii) A tool for evaluation. It can be used to determine whether the ﬁrm is achieving its goals and objectives/ help to make necessary adjustment/changes/ for supervision purposes.
(iii) A tool for management. It can be used for structuring the implementation of the functions /tool for planning, organizing, directing, stafﬁng, coordinating budgeting/communicating.
(iv) Gives the ﬁrm a competitive edge. It enables the ﬁrm to get a better understanding of the market and competitors.
(v) Enhances efﬁciency in the use of the resources of the ﬁrm. It ensures that the resources available are allocated and used in the best way possible Without wastage.
(vi) Motivational tool. It inspires the management /employees /creates team work in accomplishing the objectives of the ﬁrm.
(vii) Framework /blue print/ guide for implementing a new business, thus assisting management in decision/actions on the (possible) strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats on a day to day basis.
(Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks)
(b) Demerits that a country may suffer when the government becomes a major investor in business include:
(i) Discourage private investment. The move may discourage private investment due to unfair competition and acquisition of monopoly powers/unfavourable laws.
(ii) Poor quality goods and services. The quality of goods and services may be compromised due to lack of competition. Government employees also lack enthusiasm since there is no proﬁt motive.
(iii) Limited choices for consumers. Where the government is the only provider of good/service, consumers may be denied a variety to choose from.
(iv) Inefﬁciency. Leading to low/poor productivity/continuous loss.
(V) Burden to tax payers. The investments may drain public resources by increasing government expenditure in situations where the enterprise is not able to sustain itself (burdening tax payers).
(vi) Lack of accountability/transparency/corruption. Managers of government-run businesses tend to misappropriate and embezzle public funds/ misuse public funds.
(vii) Unstable management. Government-run businesses are prone to frequent changes in their management occasioned by changing political leadership.
(viii) Political interference/patronage. Appointment of cronies/nepotism and unethical practices may lead to social discontent.
(ix) Bureaucracy/red tape. Leading to rigidity/slow response to market changes.
(Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks)
(6 X 2 : 12 marks)
(b)Reasons for which traders observe ethical practices in product promotion include:
(i) To avoid misleading the consumers by not ma.king false claims about their products.
(ii) against their cultural values.
(iii) To ensure that consumers are not offended by not making use of appeals that go (iv) To avoid exploiting certain vulnerable groups like children since they lack the knowledge and experience to understand and evaluate the purpose of persuasive appeals.
(v) To avoid negative inﬂuence on the consumers’ values and lifestyles that may lead to immorality and ill health like glorifying the image of alcohol and cigarettes.
(vi) To avoid portraying rival businesses negatively in an attempt to capture the market or gain undue advantage.
(vii) To create a positive image reputation of business hence maintaining customer loyalty.
(vi) To abide by the laws of the country to avoid law suits/conﬂicts/frictions with law enforcement agencies/government.
(Any 4 X 2 = 8 marks)
3. (a)Objectives that may be attained by establishing ﬁrms in different parts of the country include:
(i) To reduce rural-urban migration. Setting up ﬁrms in several parts of the country may curb the inﬂux of people from rural to urban areas. This helps to retain the productive population in the rural areas.
(ii) To utilize local resources/factors of production/untapped resources. Establishing ﬁrms in various parts of the country will enhance the use of idle resources in those areas.
(iii) To create employment opportunities. This is a sure Way of creating employment opportunities in several parts of the country which improves the standard of living.
(iv) To provide balanced regional development. Creating ﬁrms in various parts of the country will ensure that all parts grow/ develop at the same rate/time.
(v) To promote development of infrastructure. Setting up of ﬁrms will encourage the growth of infrastructure like roads, power, water, railway and communication in various parts of the country Which opens up the country and facilitates production/movement of goods/services/factors.
(vi) To promote development of social amenities / schools/ health facilities. When ﬁrms are set up in various parts of the country, social amenities Will also be developed. This improves the social welfare of the people.
(vii) To reduce social problems hence avoiding/minimizing pollution/crime/ prostitution/drug abuse/theft.
(viii) To promote urban growth hence encouraging growth of market/economy/ commercial activities.
(ix) To reduce congestion in certain areas in order to ease pressure on resources.
(X) To reduce effects of concentrated pollution which may negatively affect the environment.
(Xi) To minimize effects/impact of calamities/terrorism/catastrophe which may polarize the economy.
(xii) To reduce income disparities/inequalities as people will be engaged in production activities.
(any 5 X 2 = l0 marks)
(b) Accounting documents that are used in home trade include:
(i) Invoice. This is a document sent by the seller to a buyer demanding payment for goods supplied. It shows details of the goods, quantity, unit price, value, any discount given, net payment and terms of payment sold/bought on credit/a source document for sales/purchases day bool/A Ledger.
(ii) Debit note. A document sent by the seller to the buyer to correct an undercharge. It is issued when the invoice shows a lesser amount than what is actually owed. It is an additional invoice/may be used when empty containers have not been returned and have to be charged for.
(iii) Credit note. A document sent by the seller to the buyer to correct an overcharge.
It is issued when goods are returned to the seller because they are defective, not the ones ordered or they were not required. When returning empty containers (which had been charged for). A source document for sales returns/purchases returns day books.
(iv) Receipt. This is a document issued by the seller to the buyer when payment is made for goods / services. A source document for the cash book/cash payment journal/cash receipts journal.
(V) Statement of account. This is a document sent by the seller to the buyer showing details of transactions for the month with a running balance shown with each entry.
(vi) Payment voucher. A document used to validate payment for servicel goods rendered. It is issued by a cashier and signed by the service providerl payee/ recipient/a sources document for the petty cash book/impress used where the receipt is not readily available.
(vii) Remittance advice note. This is a document that accompanies a cheque issued for settlement of a debt. It provides information on the payment.
(viii) A1E (Authority to incur expenditure. written instructions allowing one to spend institutional funds up to a certain amount.
(iX) Bank deposit slip – As a source document for cash book/evidence of payment into the bank account.
(Xi) Consignment note supports hire of carriage services/shows transport charges.
4. (a) Calculating:
I. Turnover = Sales – Returns inwards = 1,155,000 – 30,000 = ShS 1,125,000 (4 ><% = 1 mark)
II. Rate of stock tumover (ROSTO)
Cost of goods sold
Cost of goods sold = opening stock + purchases + carriage inwards – Retum
outwards – closing stock
430,000 + 930,000 + 10,000 — 470,000 — 20,000
(430, 000 + 470,000) + 2
I 450, 000
= 1.96 times
: 2 times
ROSTO = (12 ><% = 3 marks)
HI‘ Mark up : Cost of goods sold
_ 1,125,000 — 880,000
_ 49 ~
– % _27.8%
1 (4><%= 2marks>
IV. Margin = %
_ 49 1
_ 225 or 21.77% (4X§:2markS)
V. Net proﬁt = Gross proﬁt – Expenses
= 245,000 – (25,000 + 100,000 + 25,000)
(Q Xi. : 7 rnm”lzq\
(b) Guidelines that should be followed by the government in its expenditure include:
I. Maximum social beneﬁt/optimal beneﬁt. Government spending should beneﬁt as many people as possible.
II. Flexibility. Should be elastic enough to accommodate changing circumstances.
III. Economy. Should be capable of being changed to accommodate prevailing economic circumstances.
IV. Equity. Should aim at distributing incomes fairly.
V. Sanction. Government spending must be approved by the relevant authority to enhance accountability.
VI. Accounting. Proper accounting records should be kept to facilitate good ﬁnancial management.
VII. Productivity. A larger proportion of the national income should be spent on development projects.
VIII. Surplus. Expenditure should be less than the total revenue collected.
IX. Elasticity – should be capable to being expanded/contracted depending on the size of the economy.
(Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks)
5. (a) Disadvantages that a developing country may suffer by liberalizing foreign trade include.
(i) May lead to dumping of inferior products into the country.
(ii) May cause over exploitation of resources leading to their depletion.
(111) May lead to loss of jobs due to closure of ﬁrms that cannot cope with competition.
(iv) May contribute to worsening balance of payment situation as developing countries have fewer/ lowly valued exports.
(v) Cultural values and beliefs may be eroded due to unrestricted trade.
(vi) Entry of harmful goods. Goods with harmful ingredients such as beauty creams and drugs may ﬁnd their way into the country.
(vii) Slow economic development. The country may stagnate due to over dependence on other countries for supplies.
(viii) Brain drain. The developing country looses skilled personnel to better developed countries Who provide better pay and amenities.
(b)Features of monopolistic competition include:
(i) Many sellers and buyers. The market is comprised of many sellers and buyers who operate independently.
(ii) Free entry and exit into the market. There are no barriers to entry into, or exit from the market.
(iii) Commodities sold are very close substitutes. Firms sell similar products but which are highly differentiated by names, shapes, colour, odour and packaging.
(iv) All ﬁrms earn normal proﬁts in the long run. Some ﬁrms may earn super normal proﬁts in the short run.
(v) Firms are independent. There is little interdependence in terms of pricing and quantities to produce.
(vi) Entry or exit of a ﬁrm does not signiﬁcantly affect the market. None of the ﬁrms can inﬂuence the market supply by joining or leaving the industry.
(vii) No single ﬁrm has control over the factors of production. All ﬁrms acquire the factors at the prevailing market rates and conditions.
(Viii) Perfect knowledge of the market. Buyers and sellers are aware of the prices, quantities and other market factors.
(Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks)
6. (a)Sources of ﬁnance for a public limited company apart from the sale of shares include:
(i) Borrowing from ﬁnancial institutions in the form of loans, bank overdraft and mortgage.
(ii) Trade credit. Buying goods for re-sale on credit so as to pay at a later date.
(iii) Hire purchase. Buying goods and paying for them on instalment basis.
(iv) Debentures. Borrowing from members of the public for which interest is paid at a ﬁxed rate and over a predetermined period of time.
(v) Sale and leaseback. Selling an asset like a building and then hiring it back for a speciﬁed period of time.
(vi) Retained proﬁts. Proﬁts made are not shared out as dividends but ploughed back into the business.
(vii) Discounting bills of exchange. Receiving payment from ﬁnancial institutions at a discount against bills of exchange before their maturity.
(viii) Use of reserves/ provisions. The company may make use of funds set aside for depreciation, tax and bad debts to ﬁnance its day to day operations.
(Any 5 x 2 = l0 marks)
(b) Factors that may have caused a decline in the demand for Wooden furniture include:
(i) Decline in consumer incomes. This may reduce their purchasing power hence less able to afford the furniture.
(ii) Fall in the price of substitutes. Furniture made from other materials like plastic and metal may be cheaper.
(iii) Increase in the price of Wooden furniture. This makes the furniture to be out of reach for most consumers.
(iv) Government policy. The government may have increased rates on timber products hence making the furniture more expensive.
(v) Unfavourable change in tastes and preferences. Consumers may be purchasing more plastic and metallic furniture.
(vi) Decline in population. A decrease in population Will lead to reduced numbers of potential and actual customers.
(vii) Expectations of a future fall in price. Consumers may be anticipating a fall in price in the future hence currently suspend buying.
(Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks)