- Chemistry Paper 1 (233/1)
1.a)X is water. or H20
b)It is slightly soluble in water. J and denser than air.
- Used in hospitals to resuscitate patients.
- Used in welding when mixed with acetylene in the ocy-acetylene ﬂame.
- Used by divers and mountaineers. _
- Rocket fuel, hospitals for breathing, steel making.2NaHCO3(S) + com) + H20“) W1)
2AgNO3(s) – > 2Ag(s) + 2NO2(g)+O2(g)
21= 04m -> F6203“) + SO + (1)
- Crush the seeds in a mortar using a pestle.
- Add a suitable solvent (acetone / propanone
- Filter out the solid matter.
- Evaporate the filtrate to obtain oil.4. a) Aluminium has a stronger metallic bond because it has more delocalised electrons than sodium.
b) Sulphur has a tinged structure of S8 molecules whiles chlorine is diatomic.
The forces in sulphur are stronger than chlorine.
5. a) It does not sublime.
b) Cut a piece of Sodium metal, place it on a deﬁagrating spoon, heat it brieﬂy
then lower it into a gas jar of chlorine . It will continue buming forming Sodium Chloride.
6 a) Cu2+(aq) + 2e —> Cu(s)
b) 63.5 g require 2 x 96500 C
l.l84g = 63.5
3598.6 coulombs J (1)
Q = 22.214.171.124.
3586.5 = 2xt 60
35865 =t = 29.988
z 30 minutes )
1799.3 s =t (V2)
7 (a) (i) X – Calcium carbide or CaC,
(ii) Y – CH2 = CHCl Chloroethene or vinylchloride
- Floor tiles
- Rain coats
- Plastic bags8 Working diagram. a should be deﬂected
less than B because of its heavier mass.
9. ln water. HCI is ionised ginto H and Cl the Chloride ions are oxidised to chlorine gas by potassium permanganete.
In methylbenzene, HCl remains in molecular gform i.e HCl. The Chloride is not available for oxidation hence no reaction. 10 (a) T (b) l5 g t/111 (c) Fractional crystallization
11 (a) NZHW + Ow ~> NMI + 2H:O
(b) Bond breaking energy
l63 + 4 (388) + 496
= 2211 kJ
Bond making energy
944 + 4 (463)
Ethalpy change = Bond breaking + Bond making energies.
= -585 kl/mol
12 a) The acidiﬁed permanganete will be decolourised (purple to colourless) b) The permanganate (Vll) is reduced to manganese (II) ion.
(i) A white precipitate forms.
(ii) Ba2+ +SO2-/3 —> BaSO_
13 a) [Zn(NH4/3]2+
b) Zn2= + Mg —> Mg2+ + Zn
14 .Charles Law
At constant pressure. the volume of a ﬁxed mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. 1
b) 1 = vs km
P 1v [Ht = I46 dp
_1_r =T l1=l8+._73:36lK
T : P3: 10! km
P1 v =12?
T 1><36l H TI:-
14364.94 ~ 1-
r = 273.22 K
15. a) R and T
16 Zinc granules
The gradient of the graph is less” steep (11 because there is less surface area.
17 NO + O —> 2NO
b) Because nitrogen is inert.
c) Nitrogen (ll) oxide is oxidised to Nitrogen (IV) oxide which is a pollutant. H
18 (a) Water
(b) Bubbles of gas and a white ppt CO2. (P/Q) reacts to give CaCO,
19 (a) These are different forms carbon in the same physical state.
(b) The hexagonal graphite rings have weak Van der Waals forces between the layers that allow the layers to slide over each other (1) while in diamond the atoms are held by strong Covalent bonds. .
20 (a) The atomic radii increase with increase in atomic number. This is due to increase in energy levels.
(b) The group II elements have more protons than group I elements hence this increases the nuclear attraction for the outer electrons. J
21 (a) Cu2 or copper ions
(b) C1 and OH’
22 (a) Copper pyrites chalcocite, malachite
(b) To concentrate the ore
(c) – Brass
23 (a) 100-25=75 cm
(b) CxHy + O2 —> C02 + H20
15 cm’ 75 cml 45 cm
1 5 3
Cx Hy =-Iy + 5 O2—> 3 CO2 + 4 H20
x = 3 y = 8
24 Ca(NO3)2 —> Ca + 2NO3
RMM of Ca(NO)2 = 164
Concentration of Ca(NO3)2 = 4.1
Conc. in g/l
= 0.025M J M)
1 mole Ca(NO3)2 E 2 moles Nitrate
0.025 iii E 2 0.025
25 It would remain unchanged (1)
There is no water to form hypochlorous acid
26 When aqueous sodium chloride is added to Ca2 . There is no ppt while a white ppt is formed when aqueous sodium chloride is added to a solution containing Pb
27 (a) N. being a weak acid provides few H’ to be neutralised by OH” hence there is a slight increase in temperature.
(b) CH3COOH + KOH ) —> Cl-l3COOKmq] + H20“)
28 (a) Experiments 1 and 3. J
(b) In experiment 1, the ions in K2CO3 are tightly held in position and cannoot move V
while sugar solution does not have ions that can carry a current in solution.
29 1 H mass 18
1 H mass 20