KCSE Past Papers 2011 Geography paper 2 (312/2)

2 Geography Paper 2 (312/2)

1 (a) Name two exotic breeds of commercial beef cattle reared in Kenya.

~ Aberdeen Angus

~ Hereford

‘ Galloway

‘ Charolais

‘ Shorthorn

‘ Sahiwal

Any 2 x 1=2 marks

(b) Outline two similarities of commercial beef cattle fanning in Kenya and Argentina.

~ In both countries the cattle are mainly reared in areas of natural grazing/natural pasture.

‘ In both countries crossbreeding of beef cattle is common/scientific method of production.

– In both countries beef cattle are reared mainly in ranches.

‘ In both countries beef cattle/products are meant for the local and foreign market. ‘ In both countries cattle breeds are largely similar. Any 2 x 1=2 marks

2 (a) Define the term fisheries.

– Fisheries are water bodies where aquatic organisms/fish are found/reared for exploitations. 2 marks

(b) State three ways in which marine fisheries in Kenya can be conserved.

~ Restocking the over fished areas.

‘ Standardizing the mesh size of nets to be used in fishing

‘ Licencing commercial fishermen to control their numbers.

‘ Restricting fishing to specific seasons.

~ Restricting the disposal of untreated waste into the sea/control of water pollution.

‘ Monitoring and discouraging the entry of foreign fishermen off the Indian Ocean waters.

‘ Enforcing the International conventions to protect endangered fish species.

Any 3 x 1= 3 marks

3 (a) Name two prairie provinces of Canada where wheat is grown on a large scale.

~ Saskacthewan

~ Alberta

~ Manitoba

Any 2 x 1=2 marks

(b) Give three physical conditions that favour large scale wheat farming in the prairie provinces of Canada.

‘ There is extensive (cheap) land that allows cultivation on a large scale.

– The presence of fertile prairies soils/dark brown chemozems .

– The undulating landscape allows use of farm machinery/mechanization ‘ There is suitable climate with a frost-free period/warm sunny 15 – 19° which allows for timely ripening and harvesting.

‘ The area receives moderate rainfall/average 560mm annually which is suitable for wheat growing.

Any 3 x 1=3 marks

4 (a) State three reasons Why paper milling industries are located near rivers.

~ The industries need large amount of water for cleaning.

‘ The industries use water for cooling machines.

‘ The industries dispose off their waste materials through water.

‘ Water provide cheap means of transport.

‘ Some industries are located near large rivers that may provide H.E.P.

~ Water is used as raw material in the industries.

– Some industries use water to debark the logs.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

(b) Name three industries in Kenya that use agricultural non-food products as raw materials.

‘ Tobacco processing.

‘ pyrethrum processing.

~ Plant fibre processing.

‘ Saw milling ./Textile industries

‘ Paper making.

‘ Leather tanning.

~ Pharmaceuticals industries

‘ Glue making industry

‘ Rubber based industry.

– Footwear industry

‘ Non-edible oil processing.

Any 3 x 1=3 marks

5 (a) State three measures which the government of Kenya has taken to reduce infant mortality.

‘ There has been widespread immunization for children to control diseases.

~ The government provides free medical services for children/Free mosquito nets.

‘ The government provides parental education to ensure better care for children breast-feeding campaigns/Family planning.

– There is a government policy granting longer maternity leave for mothers/paternity leave to take care of the new born.

‘ Research on infant related diseases has been stepped up.

– The government encourages provision of homes for orphans.

‘ Training of traditional mid-Wives.

~ The govemment has improved/increased medical facilities.

Any 3 x 1=3 marks

(b) Give two negative effects of low population growth in a country.

– It leads to under utilization of resources/slow economic growth ‘ It leads to reduced market for goods.

‘ Increased ageing population in a country leads to high dependency.

‘ It leads to reduced labor force/productivity.

‘ It is expensive to provide social security/medical care/transport.

Any 2 x 1= 2 marks

6 Study the photograph below and use it to answer question (a)

(a) (i) What evidence shows that this is a ground general-view photograph?

~ The photograph captures the broad view of area/a broad view of the area is captured.

– The focus is on many objects

‘ The objects become progressively smaller towards the background.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

(ii) Draw a rectangle measuring 12 cm by 8 cm (1 mark)

(iii) On the rectangle, sketch and label the following features shown on the photograph:

‘ planted crops (1 mark)

‘ tree stumps (1 mark)

– forest. (1 mark)

~ felled trees. (1 mark)

– the sky. (1 mark)

(iv) Describe the characteristics of the forest shown on the photograph.

‘ The forest has tall trees.

‘ The trees have straight stems.

‘ The forest has some shrubs/undergrowth.

v Some trees have thin stems.

‘ The trees are close to each other./dense forest

‘ The trees form different layers/canopies.

‘ Some trees are umbrella shaped.

‘ The forest is natural.

~ he forest has mixed species

Any 5 X 1: 5 marks

(b) Explain four measures being taken by the government of Kenya to control human encroachment on forested areas.

‘ Gazettement of forested areas to delimit the areas and reduce encroachment by the public.

~ Evicting people who have encroached forested areas in order to rehabilitate the forests.

~ Educating the public/creating awareness on the importance of conserving forests to gain their support.

‘ Enacting/enforcing laws to prohibit cutting of trees within the gazetted areas.

– Employing forest guards to patrol forest reserves to ensure that illegal activities are reported.

‘ Encouraging people to use other sources of energy in order to reduce the demand for wood fuel.

‘ Fencing off forested areas/maintaining buffer zones to keep away any intruders into the forest.

1 Encouraging people to practice agro-forestry to avoid dependence on products from the forests.

Any 4 x 2=8 marks

(c) Give the differences between softwood and forests in Kenya and Canada under the following sub headings:

(i) Tree harvesting.

~ In Kenya harvesting of trees is done throughout the year while in Canada harvesting is done in winter and early spring.

‘ In Kenya harvesting is done selectively while in Canada clear/indiscriminate cutting of trees is done.

Any 1 x 2=2 marks

(ii) Marketing of forest products.

In Kenya forest products are mainly sold locally Whereas forest products in Canada are mainly exported.

Any 2=2 marks

Use the map below to answer question a(i) and (ii).

(a) Name

(i) The rivers marked E, F and G.

‘ E – R. Congo.

‘ F – R. Zambezi.

‘ G – R. Orange.

3 x 1 = 3 marks

(ii) The human-made lakes marked H and J .

‘ H – Kainji

‘ J – Nasser

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

(iii) Explain four measures which should be taken to improve inland water transport in Africa.

– The waterways should be dredged regularly to control siltation/maintain constant depth of the rivers and lakes for easier navigation.

~ Dams/barrages should be constructed to control flooding hence allowing navigation.

‘ Constructing canals/canalizing the rivers where waterfalls, rapids or rock outcrops exist to bypass obstacles that hinder navigation.

‘ Constant clearing/controlling the growth of vegetation to allow free movement of vessels.

‘ Using modern vessels and equipment to improve the efficiency of handling cargo/passenger service.

– Removal of rock obstacles from river beds to allow free navigation.

Any 4 x 2=8 marks

(b) State four ways in which communication contributes to economic development in Kenya.

‘ Technological efficiency in communication makes business transactions easier/faster.

‘ Modern communication network allow for the spread of ideas/information for decision making which enhances economic development.

‘ Communication promotes development of related industries/business opportunities. ‘ Communication services provide employment opportunities.

‘ Communication connectivity promotes mobility of labour.

~ Individuals/Companies/Government earn income /derives revenue from communication services.

‘ Communication facilitates marketing of products thus a wider market

Any 4 x 1 =4 marks

(c) Explain four problems facing railway transport in Africa.

‘ African countries use different railway gauges which makes it difficult to have an integrated railway transport system/transhipment of goods.

0 Construction of railways require large amounts of capital that most countries lack, either to extend or maintain the existing lines.

* Accidents/vandalism/uprooting of the railway line causes great losses/delays in transportation.

~ Tropical storm waters at time wash away vital sections of the railway lines thereby disrupting transport/causes accidents .

~ Railway transport faces stiff competition from the faster/flexible means of transport such as road and air transport hence under-utilization of railway facilities.

~ Fuelling/maintenance of railway stations and other related overhead costs are high thus reducing profit margins.

Any 4 x 2=8 marks

8 (a) (i) Give four factors common to Kenya and the Netherlands that have favored horticultural fanning.

‘ Both countries have a varied of climatic conditions.

~ In both countries horticultural farming is practiced in areas with well drained soils.

~ In both countries irrigation is carried out.

‘ Both countries sell their horticultural produce in the local and international market.

‘ In both countries large companies/private organisation have invested in horticultural farming.

– In both countries green housed are used.

‘ Use of advance technology i both countries.

‘ Availability of labour in both countries.

‘ In both countries transport net work in developed.

Any 4 x 1 =4 marks

(ii) State three features of horticultural farming in the Netherlands.

~ The farms are generally small in size.

‘ The farmers use advanced/highly specialized techniques of crop production/farmers use .greenhouses.

‘ Most farmers practice mixed fanning.

‘ The farms are intensively used.

~ Farming is largely labour intensive.

Any 3 x 1=3 marks

(b) The table below shows the quantity and value of Kenya’s horticultural exports between June 2008 and June 2009. Use it to answer question (b).

(i) What was Kenya’s total value of exports from horticulture between June 2008 and June 2009?

~ Kshs .51 ,200 Million.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

(ii) Comment on the trend of the quantity of Kenya’s horticultural exports between June 2008 and June 2009.

~ The quantities of exports are fluctuating.

– The lowest exports were in August 2008 and December 2008.

‘ The highest quantity of export was in March 2009.

– There was a significant drop in the quantity of exports between March and April 2009.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

(iii) Using the data provided, draw a simple line graph to represent the quantity of Kenya’s horticultural export.

Use a vertical scale of 1cm to represent 500 metric tonnes.

(c) Explain four difficulties that farmers in Kenya experience in marketing horticultural produce.

The impassable roads during the rainy season/poor road network make it difficult for the perishable produce to reach the market on time, hence causing losses to the farmers.

The cost of transporting produce by air is high thus lowering the profit margin.

Poor marketing strategy leads to reliance on middlemen who exploit the farmers/farmers incur losses.

Low quality produce may lead to rejection in the market hence making the farmers incur losses/farmers are demoralised.

The farmers face stiff competition from the established and upcoming producers which limits the quantity the farmers are able to sell.

Stringent quality standards required at the international market increases the cost of production thus lowering the profit margin.

Fluctuations of the world market prices cause inconsistencies in the profits margin thus discouraging the farmers.

Limited preservation facilities/refrigeration facilities leads to the spoilage of the produce hence losses/wastage.

Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks

9 (a) What is eco-tourism?

‘ It is the development and management of tourism while conserving the environment/enjoy- ing what nature provides while protecting it.

2 marks

(b) (i) Give four tourist attractions found at the Coast of Kenya.

‘ Marine parks.

‘ Historical sites.

‘ Sandy beaches/coral reefs/coastal scenery.

~ Sunny/warm climate.

~ Traditional culture.

‘ Water sports/beach sports.

‘ Wildlife.

Any 4 x 1: 4 marks

(ii) State five problems associated with tourism in Kenya.

‘ Tourism has led to increase in drug abuse.

‘ A number of youths especially at the Coast have dropped out of school to become tour guides/beach boys/sex workers/curio sellers.

‘ Tourism has led to the spread of diseases such as S.T.ls.

– Tourism has led to pollution of environment/National parks/ game reserves.

‘ Over emphasis on tourism has led to the neglect of the other sectors of economy.

‘ Tourism has led to increase in crime/insecurity.

‘ Tourism has encouraged poaching/illegal collection of marine resources.

‘ Tourism has led to international terrorism/piracy.

‘ Erosion of some social value/culture.

Any 5 X 1 = 5 marks

(C) State four ways in which game reserves are of benefits to the communities living near them.

– The game reserves offer employment opportunities to the communities living near them.

‘ The management of the game reserves provide social amenities to the communities.

– The communities are allowed to graze their animals in the game reserves.

v Access roads to the game reserves benefit the communities.

‘ The income earned from the game reserves by the local authorities is used to provide services to the communities.

‘ Sometimes members of the community are given meat when animals have been culled.

‘ Educational institutions located near the game reserves have easy access for educational tours.

* Increase market for local products.

Any 4 x 1 =4 marks

(d) Explain the differences between tourism in Kenya and Switzerland.

– In Kenya animals are found in their natural habitants while in Switzerland they are found in zoos.

‘ Kenya has tropical climate which is W3III1 and sunny most of the year encouraging sun-bathing while Switzerland has temperate climate with cold winters which encourage winter sports.

‘ Kenya has varied and beautiful Coastal scenery/Rift Valley/ volcanic mountains while Switzerland has varied scenery consisting of snow-capped mountains/ glaciated landscape.

‘ Kenya being far from Europe, gets fewer tourists than Switzerland which is centrally located in Europe.

‘ Kenya’s reports of insecurity scare away potential tourists but the reports of peaceful atmosphere in Switzerland encourage more tourists.

~ Kenya has poorly maintained transport network making it difficult to access some tourist sites while in Switzerland transport network is efficient.

‘ Kenyans are able to speak a few international languages hence communication with the tourists is sometime limited, whereas the diversity of languages spoken in Switzerland make it possible for tourists to communicate with ease.

‘ The training of personnel in tourism industry in Switzerland is more advanced than in Kenya, thus enabling the personnel to provide higher quality services to the tourists.

‘ The accessibility to financial facilities and services such as the use of credit cards, by the tourists in Kenya is limited to large Lu’ban areas, whereas in Switzerland similar facilities and services are widespread promoting easy transactions by tourists.

~ Kenyan’s low purchasing power limits their ability to travel as tourists while in Switzerland the high purchasing power enables people to travel as tourists.

‘ Kenya has coastal beaches while Switzerland has lake side beaches.

Any 5 x 2 =10 marks

(a) Differentiate between a rural settlement and an urban centre.

– A rural settlement consists of villages/scattered homesteads in the countryside where people engage mainly in agricultural activities/primary economic activities, while an urban centre is an area with dense population and people engaged mainly in industrial/ commer- cial activities.

2 marks

(b) Explain how the following physical factors influence human settlement.

(i) Relief.

~ Gentle slopes/lowlands are densely settled, because they are conducive to agriculture/build- ing houses/building roads.

‘ Steep slopes are sparsely settled because they have thin soils making then unsuitable for fanning/building of roads.

~ High mountain tops are not settled because they are too cold for plant growth/human habi- tation.

– Mountaineous areas are thinly settled because of their steep/rugged nature makes them inaccessible.

‘ The leeward side of mountains are sparsely settled because they are dry and limits agricul- tural activities/inadequate water supply/windward side are densely settled because they are wet and encourage agricultural activities/plenty supply of water..

~ Some hills have dense settlements because they are sage and secure.

~ Flat areas/flood plains are sparsely settled due to poor drainage/high incidents of water- borne diseases.

Any 3 x 2=6 marks

(ii) Climate.

‘ Areas that receive high rainfall have dense settlements because they are conducive to a variety of agricultural activities.

‘ Areas with low rainfall are sparsely settled because the climate limits economic activities.

‘ Areas prone to strong winds are often not settled to avoid destruction of property by the wind.

~ Some valley bottoms have more settlements because they are warmer than the higher slopes of mountains.

~ Areas with extreme temperatures discourage settlements because of the unpleasant condi- tions.

Low to high temperatures/cool to hot conditions encourage dense settlement because they are conducive to human habitation/Agricultural activities.

Any 2 X 2=4 marks

(c) Explain the causes of the following problems in urban centres in Kenya. (i) Traffic congestion.

The concentration of administrative/commercial/educational functions activities in the CBD leads to movement of large numbers of people to and from the CBD especially during the rush hour.

The nairowness/presence of roundabouts/poor state of roads of the streets makes the move- ment of traffic around and out of the urban centres slow.

The increase in the number of commuters/vehicles that flock in the mornings and evenings has outstripped the capacity of the existing space.

Similar working schedules for most employees cause workers to report and leave work places at the same time, leading to congestion.

Failure by motorists/pedestrians to comply with traffic rules interferes with smooth flow of traffic.

Any 2 X 2 = 4 marks

(ii) Environmental degradation.

The smoke/exhaust fumes from factories, cars and residential houses cause air pollution/ smog over the urban centres.

Careless disposal of effluents from factories and residential areas into water resources lead to water pollution.

Careless disposal/non – collection of garbage cause land pollution.

The construction of buildings/factories lead to destruction of the landscape.

Careless disposal of waste materials from construction sites leads to tip-heaps that degrade the environment.

Loud noise from industries/vehicles/aircrafts/music cause sound pollution.

Any 2 x 2=4 marks

(d) (i) Name two towns in Kenya that started as agricultural collection centres.

~ Nakuru

– Eldoret

‘ N anyuki ~ Kitale.

‘ Nyeri

‘ Nyahururu

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

(ii) Give three social functions of Kisumu town.

‘ Educational centre.

‘ Religious centre.

Residential centre.

‘ Cultural centre.

~ Recreational centre.

Medical centre.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks


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