KCSE 2019 Agriculture 2019 Paper 1

2019 Agriculture Paper 1

I. Name four aspects of rain fall that affects agriculture. (2 marks)

 

  • Rainfall intensity
  • Rainfall distribution/pattern
  • Rainfall amount
  • Rainfall reliability2. State four factors that determine the depth of cultivation. (2 marks) 
  • The type ot crop to be grown
  • Type of implement used
  • Soil moisture content
  • Presence of hard pans
  • Presence of underground obstacles
  • Type of soil
  • feed material eaten by the Animal3. State four factors that influence the quality of farmyard manure.(2 marks) 
  • Species of the Animal
  • Type of bedding material/litter used
  • Method of storage
  • Age of the farm yard manure
  • Age of the Animal which produces the waste materials
  • Type of animal
  • Per capita income4. State two factors that determine national income.(1 marks) 
  • Gross domestic product
  • Gross national product
  • Household firm relationship
  • Natural resource endowment
  • Shifting cultivation5. State four causes of land fragmentation. (2 marks) 
  • Inheritance of land
  • Population pressure leading to purchase of small scattered pieces.
  • Accumulation of land holdings by money lenders due to debtors failing to pay
  • Settlement and resettlement6. Name two types of labour records.(2 marks) 
  • Muster roll
  • Labour utilization analysis
  • Storage pests7. State four ways in which crop pests are classified.(2 marks) 
  • Field pests
  • Biting and chewing pests
  • Piercing and sucking pests
  • Rodents
  • Insect pests
  • Scientific classification
  • Stage of development
  • Stage of growth of the crop attacked8. What is the minimum number of people required to form a co-operative society in Kenya? (½ marks) 
  • Ten people9. Give two examples of fixed costs in maize production. (1 marks) 
  • Salaries of permanent workers
  • Insurance
  • Rent
  • Standing charges of telephone
  • Depreciation cost of farm machinery
  • Cost of buying machinery10. What is meant by the term production function? (1 marks) 
  • It is the physical relationship between resource inputs and the corresponding output/product.11. State three characteristics of good trees for agroforestry.(1½ marks) 
  • Fast growth rates
  • Deep rooted
  • Nitrogen fixing
  • Good in by product production
  • Leafy
  • Highly branched
  • Hardy12. Name two varieties of sorghum grown in Kenya.(1 marks) 
  • Serena
  • Dobbs
  • Intama
  • Humid
  • Lulu13. State four reasons why agriculture is important to Kenya’s economy.(2 marks) 
  • Source of food
  • Source of employment
  • Provision of raw materials for industries Provide market for industrial goods
  • Source of income14. Give two reasons why the use of fire is discouraged in land clearing.(1 marks) 
  • It kills soil micro-organisms
  • Leads to loss of nutrients
  • Destroys soil organic matter
  • Leads to accumulation of ash that changes soil pH
  • Destroys soil moisture
  • Destroys soil structure15. State four ways in which mulching conserves water.(2 marks) 
  • Prevents splash erosion/intercepts rain drops Reduces speed of surface run offs
  • Reduces evaporation
  • Increases water holding capacity
  • Improves water infiltration16. State four uses of fault records.(2 marks) 
  • Records help to compare the performance o1 different enterprises within a farm or other farms.
  • They show the history of the farm.
  • Guide a farmer in planning and budgeting of farm operations
  • Help to detect losses or theft on the farm.
  • Help in the assessment of income tax to avoid over or under taxation
  • Help to determine the value of farm or to determine the assets and liabilities of the farm.
  • Make it easy to share the profits and losses in partnerships
  • Help in settling disputes among heirs to the estate when a farmer dies without leaving a will.
  • Record help to show whether the farm business is making profits or losses.
  • Help in insurance claims
  • Provide labour information
  • Help farmers to access credit17. State four characteristics of shifting cultivation.(2 marks) 
  • Movement/shifting when soil loses its fertility
  • Practiced where land is plenty
  • Practicable with annual crops not with perennials
  • Agricultural output is low
  • Inputs such as pesticides, fungicides are rarely used
  • Simple hand tools are used
  • Land communally owned
  • Population is sparse
  • Low number of livestock per unit area18. State the law of supply as used in agricultural marketing.(1 marks)As the price of a commodity increases the quantity offered for sale increases and as the price of commodity falls the quantity supplied declines.

    19. State four ways in which trees improve soil productivity.(2 marks)

     

  • Conserve moisture
  • Improve soil structure
  • Control soil erosion
  • Contribute plant nutrients/organic matter
  • Is a combination of chemical, physical, biological and cultural20. What is meant by the term integrated pest management? (2 marks)Pest control methods.

    Section B (20 MARKS)

    Answer all the questions in this section

    21. The diagram below illustrate a tomato fruit infested by a field pest

     

  • (a) Identify the pest. (1 mark)American-bollworms(b) State two ways in which the pest is economically important. (2 mark)

     

  • Reduces the quality of produce by boring holes on fruits
  • Increase the cost of production by purchase of pesticide(c) State two cultural ways of controlling the pest. (2 mark) 
  • Early planting
  • Field hygiene/Removal and destruction of affected crop residues
  • Plant Mexican marigold in the field
  • Destruction of alternate host
  • Close season Crop rotation
  • Intercropping22. The diagram below shows a weed
  • (a) Identify the weed. (1 mark)Nut grass/sedge/Cyperus rotundus(b) Using features on the diagram, give two reasons why it is difficult to eradicate the above weed. (2 marks)

     

  • It has underground nuts which regenerate.
  • Produces many seeds to enhance survival chances(c) State two ways in which the weed is economically important. (2 marks) 
  • Competes for nutrients with crops greatly reducing yield
  • Increases production costs
  • Reduces quality of pastures/can damage the teeth of livestock
  • Blocks irrigation channels23. The diagram below represent soil structures
  • (a) Identify the soil structure labelled M, N and P.
  • M — Prismatic structure
  • N — Platy structure
  • P — Granular structure(b) Name the type of soil where each of the structures labelled N and Q is found. 
  • N — Clay soil
  • Q — Sandy soil24, The diagram below shows an illustration of a crop field practice.
  • (a) Identify the field practice illustrated above.(I mark)Earthing up;(b) Name two crops which require the practice illustrated.(2 mark)

     

  • Groundnuts
  • Potatoes
  • Irish potatoes
  • Sweet Potatoes
  • Maize(c) Give two reasons for carrying out the practice on one of the crops you have named in (b) above. (2 marks) 
  • To improve tuber formation in Irish/sweet potato
  • To encourage/improve seed formation in groundnuts
  • To improve drainage and provide support in tobacco
  • To provide support/prevent lodging in cereal crops like maize
  • To prevent greening in root/ tuber crops;SECTION C (40 marks)Answer any two questions from this section

    25. (a) Explain seven factors that should be considered when selecting seeds for planting. (7 marks)

     

  • Adaptability — should be adapted to local ecological conditions
  • Physical deformities/damages — should be free from physical deformities/damages Should be free from pests/diseases Viability/high germination percentage — should have high viability/ germination percentage
  • Should be from high yielding/healthy plant early maturing
  • Purity; should be clean/free from impurities
  • Maturity; should be of correct maturity stage
  • Age/storage period; seeds stored for long periods have low viability/germination percentage hence should not be selected
  • Size of seeds; seeds should be of correct size(b) State four benefits of adequate and reliable rainfall in vegetable crop production. (4 marks) 
  • Ensures adequate supply of water to the crop Production/growing of vegetables is done throughout the year
  • Controls pests in crop production
  • Maximizes the utilization of available resources
  • Increases yields and ensure a steady supply of food throughout the year
  • Ensures a steady and reliable source of income and employment(c) State four pieces of information contained in an invoice.(4 marks) 
  • Date of the transaction
  • Type of goods
  • Quantity of goods
  • Price of goods
  • Total amount of money involved
  • Invoice number
  • Terms of payment
  • Name of supplier
  • Signature/stamp of supplier(d) State five roles of calcium in crop production.(5 marks) 
  • Calcium acetate strengthens plant cell wall
  • Calcium is necessary in protein synthesis
  • Promotes soil aggregate formation thus improving soil aeration, water infiltration and retention
  • Calcium compounds when added to acidic soils they raise soil pH
  • Increases cation exchange capacity
  • Makes phosphorus and potassium available for plant uptake.
  • Controls blossom end rot in tomatoes;26. (a) Describe how sugar cane is harvested.(5 marks) 
  • Harvest at the correct age 13 — 22 months for plant crops months for ratoon crop
  • Take sugar cane samples for testing to determine maturity
  • Cut the mature cane at the base/near the ground
  • Cut off the green tops
  • Strip off green leaves/using machete/bum before harvesting
  • Deliver the cane to the factory within 48 hours/ immediately after cutting(b) Explain four factors that determine the nutrient content of hay.(4 marks) 
  • Stage of growth at harvesting time- cut when 50% has flowered
  • Species of the forage crop used- rich in nutrients Duration of storage- long storage lowers the quality Weather conditions during drying- dry and sunny conditions produce high quality hay
  • Length of drying period- rapid drying produces high quality Pest/disease attack on the crop- free from diseases
  • Method of storage- store in a dry place under shade(c) State seven roles of a farm manager.(7 marks) 
  • Short term planning/making quick decisions in order to carry on t e activities in appropriate time and hence avoid a crisis
  • Long term planning/making decisions which are linked to the future plans and operations on the farm
  • Gathering and analyzing information related to the enterprises
  • Detecting weaknesses and constraints and finding ways and means of overcoming them.
  • Keeping farm records or accounts
  • Guiding and supervising the farm management
  • Bearing consequences/responsibility of plans/decisions
  • Making predictions of the likely outcome of possible alternative courses of action
  • Comparing ones enterprise with the set standards(d) Describe four methods used to reclaim a swampy land for agricultural production. (4 marks) 
  • Open ditches — U shaped, V-shaped, trapezoidal ditches are dug for excess water to flow away by gravity
  • Underground drain pipes/perforated pipes are laid underground, excess water then seeps from the surrounding area into the pipes and flows to a water way
  • French drains — ditches are dug, filled with stones and gravel and then covered with soil. Excess water from the surrounding area seeps into these drains and is carried away.
  • Cambered beds — Raised beds are constructed to allow excess water to flow away in furrows.
  • Pumping — is draining excess water from the swampy area using mechanical force.
  • Planting of trees — e.g. Eucalyptus absorbs a lot of water from swampy areas.27. (a) Describe the production of carrots under the following subheadings:(i) land preparation (3 marks)

     

  • land preparation
  • Clear the bush/using a panga/slasher Remove stump
  • Primary cultivation is done using jembe/ploughs
  • Secondary cultivation/harrow to a fine tilth
  • Avoid manure application to prevent forking(ii) planting (4 marks) 
  • Make drills 30cm apart and lcm deep
  • Apply phosphates/DSP/DAP/MAP fertilizer during planting Sow seeds along the drills Cover with top soil
  • Apply fertilizer at the rate of 90kg of DSP/DAP
  • Plant at the onset of rains/when the soil has enough moisture
  • Firm the soil after planting;(b) Describe six ways in which grass cover helps in soil and water conservation. (6 marks) 
  • Grass cover reduces the speed of run off which lowers the erosive power of run off
  • Grass cover reduces/intercepts the impact of rain drops which reduces splash erosion
  • Grass cover protects soil surface hence reducing wind erosion
  • Gross cover holds soil particles together from being carried away by erosive agents The grass improves soil structure
  • Grass cover improve infiltration rate of water
  • Grass cover reduces the rate of evaporation of soil moisture.
  • Grass filters trap soil(c) Explain seven nursery management practices. (7 marks) 
  • Mulching — A light mulch is applied on the nursery bed before seedlings emerge to conserve moisture and control erosion
  • Watering — nursery bed is watered regularly in the morning and evening to ensure adequate water supply.
  • Weed control- weeds are removed through uprooting to minimize competition with the crop
  • Pricking out- overcrowded seedlings are removed and planted in a second nursery bed/seedling bed
  • Shading — A light shade is erected over the nursery bed to protect young seedlings from excess sunlight/ rain drops that damage them.
  • Pest and disease control – controlled through application of appropriate chemical/fungicides
  • Hardening off — is gradual reduction of shade and watering 1 — 2 weeks before transplanting seedlings to acclimatize them to seed bed conditions
  • Root trmming- cut at the tips to encourage lateral root development
  • Application of foliar feed fertilizer to boost growth
  • Removal of mulch after emergence to prevent etiolation
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