KCSE 2017 Agriculture 2017 Paper 2

SECTION A (30 marks)

1. Name one breed of livestock under each of the following categories:

(a) dairy cattle

– Guernsey

– Friesian

– Ayrshires

– Jersey

(b) dual purpose cattle

– Sahiwal;

– Red poll;

– Sinunental


(c) dual purpose sheep

Romney mash;

– Carridale;

– Hampshire Down

(d) hair goat

– Angora;

2. State four egg abnormalities observed during egg candling. (2 marks)

– Blood spots;

– Hair cracks;

– Excessively porous shell;

– Fertilized eggs;

– Small size of air space;

– Meat sports;

3. Give four reasons for livestock breeding. (2 marks)

– Expand inherited potential of the animal;

– Increase productivity;

– Environmental adaptability;

– Satisfy consumers’ tastes;

– For increased growth rates for early maturity;

4. Give two reasons for hoof trimming. (1 mark )

– Prevent lameness;

– Control foot rot disease;

– Prevent injury during mating;

5. State four signs of Anthrax disease. (2 marks)

– underside of the body;

– Fever;

– Blood stained faeces and milk;

– Tar like watery blood discharge from orifices;

– Lack of rigor mortis in carcass;

– Blood does not clot quickly;

6. Name four methods of dewarming. (2 marks)

– Use of dehorning wire/saw;

– Use caustic potash stick (Potassium hydroxide);

– Use of disbudding iron;

– Use of rubber ring and elastrator;

– Use of dewarming collodion;

7. Give four reasons for keeping dairy animals healthy. (2 marks)

– Healthy animals grow fast and reach maturity early;

– Provide a long economic and productive life;

– To maximize production/performance;

– To produce good quality products;

– To prevent spread of diseases;

– Healthy animals are economical and easy to keep

8. State four features of a clean milkman. (2 marks)

– Free from contagious diseases;

– Physically clean;

– Wears white overall when milking and handling milk;

– Short finger nails;

– Covered hair;

9. Name four maintenance practices for a wire fence.

– Straighten loose or sagging wires using a wire strainer;

– Broken wires should be spliced;

– Worn out posts should be replaced;

– Broken brace posts and droppers should be replaced;

10. State four reasons why dorper breed of sheep is good for mutton production.

– Produce high quality carcass;

– Is highly prolific;

– Grows fast and matures early;

– Adapted to hot and dry areas;

11. State four control measures for tsetse flies.

– Bush clearing to destroy breeding grounds;

– Spraying breeding grounds with insecticides;

– Use of fly trap impregnated nets;

– Sterilization;

12. Explain how each of the following is measured in cattle:

(a) blood temperature

Using clinical/veterinary thermometer inserted in the rectum;

observing and counting the rate of inspiration/expira-tion per minute;

(b) respiratory rate

Using a respirometer;

(c) pulse rate

Place a finger or thumb on an artery passing on a bone or on the lower edge of the animal jaw

13. State the gestation period or each of the follwing:

(a) cow

– 270 — 285 days

(b) sow

– 113 — 117 days;

(c) ewe

– 150 days;

(d) rabbit

– 28 — 32 days;

14. State four features of large white breed of pigs. (2 marks)

– Long ana large;

– White with blue body spots;

– Broad and dished snout;

– Upright ears;

15. State four functions of worker bees in a bee colony. (2 marks)

– Feed the queen, drones and brood;

– Protect the hive from intruders;

– Collect nectar, pollen, tree nashis, gums, water etc; Build combs; – Seal cracks and creviceson the hive;

– Clean the hive;

– Make honey and bees wax;

16. state 3 ways of caponisation in poultry(1/2)

– Open method/surgical method;

– Implanting pellets of female sex hormone beneath the skin of the bird;

– Injecting with stilbestrol hormone when they are one day old;

SECTION B (20 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided

. 17. The diagrams below represent farm tools and equipment.

(a) Identify the tools labelled E and F.

E – open ended spanner;

F – Steel float;

(b) State one use of each of the tools labelled F and G

F– Loosening and tightening specific sized nuts and bolts;

G– Digging and collecting manure/trash;

(c) State one advantage the tool labelled F has over E

– provides a more firm grip on nuts and bolts;

– can work on nuts/bolts in depressions;

18. The diagram below illustrates an external parasite of livestock.

(a) Identify the parasite. (1 mark)

– Tick

(b) Apart from eggs and adults, name two other developmental stages of the parasite illustrated above. (1 mark)

– Larvae

– Nymph

(c) Name two livestock diseases transmitted by the illustrated parasite. (1 mark) – East Coast fever;

– Anaplasmosis;

– Heart water

(d) Explain two ways in which the environment is altered to control the parasite illustrated above. (2 marks)

– Ploughing pastures;

– Burning pastures;

– Top dress it using lime or acaricides;

19. The diagram below shows a cross-sectiona of a fish pond

Name the part labelled

j– Inlet

K– Spillway / overflow pipe;

(b) State one function of the part labelled L

– Drain the pond during harvesting/cropping

(c) Give one reason why the pond should have a deep end?

– Provide breeding ground for fish

(e) Explain how fingerlings are introduced into a pond?

– The container with fingerlings is gradually lowered into the pond and tilted for the fingerlings to swim away;

20. The diagram below shows calf presentations during parturation

(a) Name the presentation labelled

M (1 mark)– Normal presentation

N (1 mark)– Breech/mal-presentation

(b) Which one of the two presentations requires the services of a qualified stockman? (1 mark)

– N – Breech presentation;

(c) State two signs of parturition observed on the vulva. (2 marks)– Enlarged and swollen;

– Clear mucus discharge;

SECTION C 140 marks

) Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 23.

21. (a) Describe ten characteristics of a good layer.(10 marks)

– Combs and wattles are large, warm, waxy and red;

Bright orange and alert eyes;

– Pale beak;

– Oral, moist and reddish vent;

– Soft, pliable and wide abdomen;

– Space between the keel & pelvic bone is wide i.e. fits 3 -4 fingers;

– Alert and active in temperament;

– Dry and rugged plumages;

– Late moulting; – Pale shanks; – Broodiness is rare;

(b) Describe the milking procedure under the following sub-headings:(5 marks)

(i) pre-milking practices

– milking materials and equipment should be availed and within reach of milkman;

– Put the cow in the milking palour;

– Restrain the cow;

– Give food;

– Wash the udder and dry it with separation towels;

– Check for mastitis infection;

(ii) procedure of proper milking:(5 marks)

– Tightly grasp the teat at its base between the thumb and forefinger;

– to prevent back flow of milk into the gland cistern;

– Close in the other three fingers;

– applying pressure from top to bottom; to force the teat’s orifice open and drain milk out of the teat;

22. (a) Describe Brucellosis disease In cattle under the following sub-headings

(I) causal organism ( I mark )

– Brucella abortus; bacteria;

(ii) signs of attack (4 marks)

Premature birth occurs;

– Retained placenta;

– Infertility;

– – Inflamed tests with low libido in bulls;

– Yellowish, brown slimy odourless discharge from the vulva at abortion;

(iii) control measures. 15 marks)

– Uses of A.I;

Culling/slaughter affected animals;

– Vaccination;

– Stockman should avoid contact with aborted foetus;

– Blood test on all breeding animals to detect infected Proper hygiene

(b) Explain live factors that affect the digestibility of a feed material (5 mark )

– Chemical composition of the food: Form in which the feed is offered to the animal;

– Species of the animal;

– Ratio of energy to protein;

– Quantity of food already present in the digestive system of the animal

(c) Explain five requirements of an artificial brooder in poultry rearing (5 mark )

– Litter on the floor; for insulation and absorption of moisture;

– Fresh air circulation;

– should have holes on the wall for ventilation/ gaseous exchange;

– Heat source;

– should be provided to maintain correct temperatures;

– Feeders and waterers;

– should be adequate to prevent overcrowding;

– Shape of the brooder should be round to prevent overcrowding that leads to suffocation;

23. (a) State five harmful effects of lice in pigs. (5 marks)

– Anaemia;

– Irritation;

– Emaciation;

– Poor feeding;

– Loss of hair;

– Wounds/scratches on the skin;

(b) Explain five structural requirements for a grain store. (15 marks)

– Vermin proof to keep away rats;

– Well ventilated to avoid dampness in the store;

-Water/leak proof to prevent dampness in the store;

– Easy to clean — free from cracks and crevices which harbor pests;

– Constructed above the ground to prevent dampness;

(c) Describe five maintenance practices for the water cooling system of a tractor (15 marks)

– Lubricate the water pump regularly;

– Use clean water in the radiator;

– Remove trash from the fins;

– Ensure all pipes are tightly fitted to avoid leakage;

– Fill the radiator with clean water before each day’s work;

– Check the fan belt tension regularly and adjust accordingly;

(d) Give five differences between diesel and petrol engine, (15 marks)

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