KCSE 2016 Agriculture 2016 Paper 2

2016 Agriculture Paper 1

No. 1.Name four rabbit breeds reared in Kenya. (2 marks)

❖ New Zealand white/ Kenya white;

❖ California white;

❖ Flemish giant;

❖ Chinchilla;

❖ Rex;

❖ Angora;

❖ Ear lops;

No.2.Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock health: a) Disease (1 mark)

❖ Any deviation or alteration in the state of animal body or its organ which interferes with proper performance of its functions

b) Vaccination (1 mark)

Is the administration of a weakened or killed disease causing agent into the animal to induce production antibodies for immunity against the disease

No.3.State four advantages of artificial calf rearing in dairy cattle management.(2 marks)

❖ Farmer is able to keep accurate records of milk yield

❖ Easy to regulate the amount of milk taken by the calf

❖ cows produce milk even in the absence of the calves

❖ allows for maintenance of high standard of hygiene during milking

❖ There is a possibility of the farmer selling more milk thereby maximizing profits.

No.4.List four materials that can be used in constructing a Kenya Top Bar Hive.(2 mark)

❖ Timber

❖ Nails


❖ Plain wire

❖ Iron sheets

No.5.Give four features of housing that help to control livestock diseases (2 marks)

❖ Well ventilated

❖ Well lit

❖ Easy to clean

❖ Free from droughts

❖ Spacious

❖ Leakproof

❖ Proper drainage

No.6.State four characteristics of the Duroc Jersey pig. (2 marks)

❖ Long body

❖ Black in colour

❖ Drooping ears

❖ Is hardy;

No.7.Give four characteristics of a good site for a fish pond. (2 marks)

❖ Topography/ slope of land should be gentle sloping.

❖ Reliable water source.

❖ Area with cracks/ anthills should be avoided.

❖ Soil type/ site should be free of gravel/ stone/ sand/ preferably clay soil.

❖ Secure from predators and thieves.

❖ The site should be accessible.

No. 8.Name four systems of a tractor engine. (2 marks)

❖ Fuel systems,

❖ Lubrication system.

❖ Electrical system.

❖ Ignition system,

❖ Cooling system,


❖ Hydraulic system

❖ Power transmission system

No.9.What is dry cow therapy? (1 mark)

❖ The application of antibiotics into the teat canals of the cow’s udder after drying off the cow to prevent mastitis/ bacteria infection.

No.10. Give two reasons for steaming up in dairy cattle management. (2 marks)

❖ Ensures birth of a healthy calf

❖ Provides nutrients for maximum foetal growth

❖ Build up energy for parturition

Increases and maintains high milk yield after birth/ stimulates development of alveoli

❖ Promotes good health of the cow / mother

❖ Accustoms the cow to concentrate feeding

No.11.State four maintenance practices for a disc plough. (2 marks)

❖ Cleaning after use

❖ Painting the frame

❖ Greasing the moving parts.

❖ Repair/ replace broken/ worn out parts.

❖ Metal parts on long storage.

❖ Proper storage

No.12. List four preventive measures for livestock diseases. (2 marks)

❖ Vaccination

❖ Proper feeding

❖ Quarantine imnposition

❖ Use of prophylactic drugs e.g. coccidiostaf

❖ Proper hygiene/ use of antiseptic/ disinfectants

❖ Treatment of sick animals; all aspects eg deworming. drenching

❖ Isolation of sick animals

❖ Proper selection and breeding

❖ Control of vectors

❖ Slaughtering sick animals /culling

No.13.Give two reasons for using litter in a poultry house. (1 mark)

❖ To keep the house warm.

❖ To absorb moisture from poultry droppings.

❖ Keeps birds busy scratching, thus reducing cannibalism.

No.14.State four disadvantages of fold system in poultry rearing (2 marks)

❖ Few birds per unit area.

❖ Laborious in moving the folds.

❖ Difficult to keep individual bird production records.

❖ Produces dirty eggs.

❖ Fold breaks easily due to constant movement.

No.15.State four practices that come immediately after complete milking in a milking shed (2 marks)

❖ Teat dipping to control mastitis

❖ Weigh and record milk yield

❖ Sieve/ strain/ filter milk

❖ Application of milking jelly on teats

❖ Store milk in a cool place

❖ Clean the milk shed

❖ Release the animal

❖ Clean the milk equipment

No.16.List four tools that are used when laying concrete blocks during construction of a wall. (2 marks)

❖ Plumb bob/ plumb line

❖ Mason’s trowel

❖ Spirit level/ pipe level

❖ Wood float/ steel float

❖ Masons square

❖ String/ masons line/ line

No.17 Below is a diagram illustrating an instrument used in cattle breeding.

(a) Identify the instrument (1 mark)

❖ Artificial vagina

(b) State the role of the instrument in cattle breeding. (1 mark)

❖ Collection of semen from bulls

(c) When would it be appropriate to serve a cow after the onset of heat? (1 mark)

❖ Between 12-18 hours/at standing heat

(d) Apart from the method in which the above instrument is used, name two other methods of serving a cow. (2 marks)

❖ Natural mating

❖ Embryo transplant;

No.18.The diagram below is an illustration of an egg. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.

a)Name the parts labeled B,C,D and F

❖ B -Inner shell membrane

❖ C -outer shell membrane

❖ D -Albumen/ egg white

❖ F – Chalaza

(b)State two qualities of the part labeled A that should be considered when selecting eggs for incubation.

❖ Texture/ smoothness of the shell

❖ Absence of cracks on the shell

❖ Cleanliness/ absence of the shell

❖ Cleanliness/ absence of blood stains

❖ Oval in shape.

(c)What is the function of the part labeled E in a fertilized egg? (1 mark)

❖ Provides nutrients for the developing embryo/ chick.

No.19 .The photograph below illustrates a method of identification labeled X in cattle.

a) Name the identification method (1 mark)

❖ Branding

b) Explain three disadvantages of the identification method. (3 marks)

❖ Reduces quality of hides/ skins/ because the heat damages the skin/ hide

❖ Causes the animal a lot of pain because it uses heat

❖ Causes wounds which can result in infections

No.20 .Below is a diagram illustrating a farm implement. Study it and answer the uestions that follow.

a) Identify the implement illustrated above

❖ A Ridger/ mould board ridger.

b) State the use of the:

i) Implement on the farm

❖ To make ridges/ furrows

ii) Part of the implement labelled j

❖ used to attach the implement to a tractor.

❖ Adjusting the depth of operation.

No.21.Below is a diagram of a knapsack sprayer. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow

(a)Name the parts labeled N, P, Q and R.

❖ N – Tank

❖ P – Delivery note rej.

hose pipe/ hose alone

❖ Q – trigger

❖ R – Lance (2 marks)

(b) State one function of the part labelled S (1 mark)

❖ Breaks the liquid chemical into desired size of droplets/ spray form/ fume droplets/jets

No.22(a).(i)Describe short-term tractor servicing. (10 marks)

❖ The engine should be checked daily by use of dip stick and oil level maintained;

❖ The fuel level should be checked at the start of everyday’s work and added if necessary;

❖ Water level in the radiator should be inspected and if low topped up;

❖ The level of electrolyte should be checked daily and topped up with distilled water if low

❖ The nuts and bolts should be tightened every day;

❖ Grease should be applied regularly to the moving parts;

❖ Large sediments from the sediment bowl should be removed;

❖ Tyre pressure should be checked every morning before the day’s work and

❖ adjusted accordingly;

❖ The fan-belt tension should be checked to ensure that it deflects between o cm – 2.5 cm when pushed;

❖ The brake shaft bearing should be greased and break fluid level maintained;

❖ Lost bolts and nuts are replaced.

(ii) Explain the maintenance practices that should be carried out on an ox-cart.(5 marks)

❖ Moving parts should be oiled/ greased regularly to reduce friction (tear and wear);

❖ The yoke should be properly maintained eg. repair when worn out, replaced if not repairable, properly padded;

❖ Tyre pressure should be checked daily before the start of work;

❖ Broken trailer bodies should be repaired;

❖ Loose nuts and bolts should be tightened;

❖ Paint it if to be stored for long to avoid rusting;

❖ Clean after use;

❖ Store under shed;

❖ Replace lost nuts and bolts;

No.22b.State five indicators that can be observed on a goat to confirm sickness. (5 marks)

❖ By checking the appetite and feeding – if low or excessive it indicates that the goat is sick

❖ Defaecation – inconsistency in texture, colour, smell, frequency and posture, presence of arasite segments, egg, larvae or blood

❖ Urination – irregular posture, colour and and frequency;

❖ Change in temperature above or below the normal range;

❖ Respiratory rate – irregular respiration shown by non-rhythmic inspiration and expiration indicates ill health.

❖ Pulse rate – Abnormal pulse rate under normal physiological status indicates ill- health.

❖ Production level – Loss of weight, emaciation and reduced production rate. Abnormal discharges

❖ Posture – while standing or lying.

❖ Behaviour eg. abnormal sound, aggression, excitement.

❖ Appearance – eg. dullness, restlessness, pot belly, bloated.

❖ Movement eg. gait, eg, standing or limping when walking.

❖ Mucuors membranes (abnormal) eg. bright red colour, yellowish, blueish depending on disease.

❖ Skin/ animal coat – (abnormal) starring hair, coat, sores/ wounds on skin.

No.23a.Describe the uses of fences on the farm. (10 marks)

❖ Mark boundaries.

❖ Help to avoid boundary disputes

❖ Keep off wild animals and intruders from outside the farm.

❖ Enable the fanner to practice mixed farming.

❖ Facilitates rotational grazing

❖ Controls movement of animals and people preventing formation of unnecessary paths in the farm.

❖ Control the spread of parasites and diseases by keeping off wild and stray animals the farm.

❖ Help the farmer to isolate or confine animals requiring special attention.

❖ Enable the farmer to control breeding by rearing different animals in different paddocks.

❖ Hedges act as windbreakers.

❖ Adds beauty to the farm,

❖ Add value

❖ For privacy

No.23b Give five harmful effects of liver flukes in sheep rearing. (5 marks)

❖ Digestive upsets due to blocking of bile duct.

❖ Emaciation/ recumbency leading to death

❖ Anaemia due to destruction-of-liver tissues

❖ Swollen lower jaw/ Oedema in the jaws.

❖ Swollen abdomen.

❖ Destruction of liver tissues /haemorrhage

No.23c.Explain the factors considered when culling livestock. (5 marks)

❖ Poor health;

❖ Old age;

❖ Physical deformities;

❖ Hereditary defects;

❖ Infertility;

❖ Poor mothering ability

❖ Poor quality products

❖ Low production;

❖ Bad temperament.

❖ Avoid inbreeding

No.24a .Combs and wattles – small/shrivelled/shrunken. Dry scaly and place.

❖ Eyes – dull and pale yellow.

❖ Beak – yellowish in colour.

❖ Abdomen/ breast – hard and full

❖ Vent – round, dry and less active

❖ Space between kee and pelvic bone – small and fits only one or two fingers

❖ Plumage – preened & glossy (smooth) beautiful

❖ Moulting – early moulting

❖ Shanks/ feet – Yellowish in colour

❖ Broodiness – Is common/ early moulting

❖ Temperament – easy and dull

No.24bi. Outline three characteristics of clean milk.

❖ Free from disease causing micro-organisms/pathogens

❖ Free from hair, dirt or dust.

❖ Free from bad odours and tastes/ has good flavours.

❖ Chemical composition within expected standards.

No.24bii . Explain seven factors that affect milk composition in dairy farming. (7 marks)

❖ Age of animal – Butter fat in milk becomes less as an animal grows old thus young animals produce milk with higher BF than older animals.

❖ Breed differences e.g. Species of the animal

❖ Different breeds of cattle produce milk with differing percentage composition e.g Jersey produce higher BF than Friesian.

❖ Type of wood eaten by an animal – Roughage feeds produce link with higher fats, lactose and protein compared to grains.

❖ Diseases – Diseases such as mastitis reduce the lactose composition in milk because bacteria attack milk sugars.

❖ Physiological condition of the animal – Sick/ extremely emaciated animals register low percentage of BF/ during late pregnancy, cows produce milk with low BF content.

❖ Stage of lactation – The BF content in milk is highest at the middle phase of the lactation period and lowers towards end of lactation.

❖ Completeness of milking – Milk drawn last from udder during contains high BF content/ last drop milk has BF content produce in the milk.

❖ Season of the year – accept environmental condition. BF content increases during cold seasons.

❖ Time of milking – Milk produced in the morning has a lower BF content than milk produced in the evening 1/2 factor method

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