KCSE 2013 Agriculture 2013 Paper 2

  • SECTION A: (30 MARKS)(1)
  • Dusting the birds with insecticide – sodium chloride. Observing good hygiene.
  • Fumigation/smearing the affected perches with volatile insecticides.
  • Picking and killing.(2)
  • The doe throws herself on its side.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Vulva turns red and swells.
  • Doe becomes restless. “
  • Doe rubs her body against the wall.
  • Peeping/contacting other rabbits in adjacent hutches.(3)
  • Crushing and straining /squeezing method.
  • Heating method.
  • Use of centrifugal extractor.(4)
  • Hens stop laying eggs.
  • Hens sit on eggs for long periods /continuously.
  • Hen plucks off feathers to make a nest.
  • Hens are aggressive when approached/walks with wings open.
  • Characteristics cracking sound.(5)(a) Oxytocin effects last for five to seven minutes;(b) Milk let-down is initiated when the milking time is reached;

    (c) Prevent drying of /prevents reduce in yealds /prevents mastitis infection

    (6)Sight of calf

  • Washing/massaging the udder.
  • Feeding
  • Sounds associated with milking.
  • Sticking to a regular milking routine.
  • Sight of milkman(7)
  • Presence of sores/wounds on the skin.
  • Irritation/scratching by the animal
  • Loss of hair/alopecia.
  • Anaemia
  • Presence of various developmental stages of the parasite on the animal.(8)
  • Reduction of vigour in animalslloss of hybrid vigour/heterosis.
  • Quality of products is lowered.
  • Reduction in disease resistance ability.
  • Appearance of undesirable hereditary defects.
  • Increase in abortion/embryonic mortality.
  • Decline in fertility
  • Reduced production.(9)
  • Cheap source of protein for the family.
  • Require little land and is possible where land is limiting.
  • Quick souroe of income for the farmer.
  • Makes fish to be available within the locality.(10)
  • Allow for even distribution of fat in the body.
  • Control breeding.
  • Increasing growth rate.
  • To make them docile.
  • Control breeding diseases.(11)
  • Checking for abnormalities/candling.
  • Selecting eggs of the right size/weight.
  • Cleaning/wiping often.
  • Sorting and grading.(12)
  • Do not make half-cuts/make complete cuts.
  • Shear sheep during the dry warm season.
  • Do the operation on a clean dry floor/use clean shearing equipment.
  • Do not cut body pans.
  • Use clean shearing equipment(13)
  • Foundation of the building.
  • The floor slab/floor.
  • The Lintel.
  • Pillars.
  • Walls.(14)
  • Ratio of energy to protein in the feedstuff
  • Form in which the feed is fed to the animal/method of feed preparation.
  • Chemical composition of the feedstuff.
  • Species of the animal.
  • Amount of feed already present in the digestive system of the animal.
  • Rate of feeding/frequency of feeding.(15)
  • Lack of calcium in the feed
  • Disease attack such as Newcastle(16)
  • Topography/slope of land should be gentle sloping.
  • Reliable water source.
  • Area with cracks/anthills should be avoided. »
  • Secure from predators and thieves.
  • The site should be accessible.(17)Disadvantages of fold system: 
  • Few birds per unit area.
  • Laborious in moving the folds.
  • Difficult to keep individual bird production records.
  • Produces dirty eggs.
  • Fold breaks easily due to constant movement.(18)Dehorning methods:Use of sharp knife.

    Burdizzo and knife.

    Rubber ring and elastrator.

    Use of hot iron.

    SECTION B: (20 marks)

    (19)(a) – Reticulum/Honey comb.

    – Rumen/pauch.

    (b) A : Separat.ing fine and course food materials.

    Retaining indigestible food materials.


  • Absorption of water.
  • Grinding and sieving food particles
  • Temporary food storage(c) Pepsin/Renin(20)(a) K – Urethra

    – Testes/testis

    (b) Epididymis – stores sperms

    Seminal Vesicles – Secrete seminal fluid in which sperms move.

    Soil type/site should be free of gravel/stone/sand/preferably clay soil.


  • Check egg abnormalities
  • Monitor chick development during incubation
  • Check whether the egg is fertile
  • A large dark section of developing chick.
  • A small clear section of air space.F – ToeG – Blade


  • Sharpening of teeth regularly to improve efficiency.
  • Regular cleaning after use to remove dirt.
  • Setting the teeth to maintain cutting angles.
  • Apply oil before storage to prevent rusting.Ridge/mould board ridge.(i) To make ridges/furrows (ii) I used to attach the implement to a tractor.

    Adjusting the depth of operation.

    SECTION C: (40 marks)

    Reasons for keeping livestock healthy


  • Good health ensures a long economic and productive life.
  • Healthy animals give maximum production/high performance.
  • Healthy animals grow fast and reach maturity early.
  • Healthy animals are economical to keep/reduce production costs.
  • Healthy animals produce quality products which fetch good prices.
  • Healthy animals do not spread diseases to other animals/human beings.Symptoms of roundworm attack. 
  • Anorexia/loss of appetite under heavy infestation.
  • Stiff dry coat or starring coat
  • Dehydration and pale mucosa.
  • Eggs and adults are seen in faeces
  • General emaciation
  • Animal may diarrhoea
  • Anaemic condition when infestation is heavy
  • Pot-bellies especially in young animals.
  • Coughing.Control measure for cannibalism 
  • Avoid bright light in the house.
  • Avoid overcrowding
  • Provide balanced diet.
  • Control extemal parasites.
  • Hang vegetables in the house to keep birds busy.
  • Debeak birds which peck at others.
  • Cull perpetual cannibals/birds with prolapse.
  • Provide adequate equipment feeders, waters, perches.
  • Avoid introduction of new birds in the stock.8 x l = 8 marksBody conformation features of a dairy heifer.


  • Straight topline. .
  • Have large and well developed udder with large teats.
  • l-lave large stomach which makes them heavy feeders
  • Have prominent milk veins.
  • Have less flesh on their bodies/lean bodies.
  • Have well set hind quarters to allow room for large udders.
  • Prominent pin bones.
  • Wedge shaped.
  • Long thin neck.Any 5×1=5marksDisadvantages of live fences


  • May take long to establish into an effective fence.
  • Not effective in sub-dividing land into paddocks/occupies a large space.
  • May harbour pests.
  • May create hiding places for thieves. wild animals and vermin.
  • May be labour demanding to trim and infill regularly.
  • May have shading effects on crops/competition for nutrients, moisture.
  • May leave gaps which allow animals and thieves to pass through.
  • Some may injure both livestock and the farmer. (7 marks)How a four stroke cycle Engine works 
  • Induction stroke/intake
  • Piston moves down the cylinder causing the inlet valve to open drawing in fresh supply of petrol vapour and air into the cylinder.
  • Compression stroke
  • The inlet valve closes and the piston moves up the cylinder. This compresses the fresh fuel mixture in the combustion chamber.
  • Power Stroke/ignition _
  • A spark is produced at the spark plug. This causes the fuel mixture to ignite and expand resulting in pressure that forces the piston to move down the cylinder.
  • Both valve closed.
  • Exhaust stroke
  • The piston moves up the cylinder to eliminate the bumt fuel mixture through the open exhaust valve.Management practices on calves 
  • Culling highly susceptible calves.
  • Drenching with antihelminthes to control intemal parasites.
  • Vaccinate as appropriate against diseases –
  • Castration of males not required for breeding.
  • Identification at the appropriate age to facilitate record keeping
  • Removal of any extra teats if more than four.
  • Debudding/Dehoming
  • Proper feeding of the calf.
  • Treat the sick.
  • Isolate the sick calves.
  • Maintenance of hygiene.Brucellosis(i) Causal organism


  • Bacteria/Brucella abortus/meIlitensis/suis/sp(ii) Animals affected 
  • Cattle
  • Sheep
  • Goats
  • Pigs(iii) Symptoms 
  • Sponteneous abortion/premature births.
  • Retained placenta.
  • Infertility in females.
  • Low libido in males.
  • Orchitis/inflamed testis.
  • Yellowish/brown slimy discharge.(iv) Control


  • Use of A.I.
  • Culling/slaughter and properly dispose the carcass.
  • Vaccination.
  • Avoid contact with aborted foetus.
  • Blood test to detect infected animals.
  • Observe proper hygiene.
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