KCSE 2011 Agriculture 2011 past Paper 2

SECTION A (30 marks)

1. Maintenance practices for a disc plough.

~ cleaning after use

– painting the frame

‘ greasing the moving parts.

‘ repair/replace broken/worn out parts.

‘ oiling the metal parts on long storage.

‘ proper storage.

2. Selection of breeding stock.

– Progeny testing.

~ Mass selection.

‘ Contemporary comparison.

3. Advantages of using animal power.

I Animals are cheap to acquire.

– Require less skilled labour.

‘ Can be used on small holdings.

– Are appropriate in very steep areas.

4. (a) Blue ticks – Anaplasmosis.

(b) Brown ear ticks – E.C.F

(c) Tsetse flies – Trypanosomiasis (nagana)

5. Control methods for roundworms.

‘Use of antihelmintics/drenching ‘Proper disposal of faeces/hygiene

‘Rotational grazing ‘Ploughing/burning of pasture.

6. (a) Disease: Any deviation or alteration in the state of animal body or its organs which interferes with proper performance of its functions.

(b) Vaccination: Is the administration of a weakened or killed disease causing agent into the animal to induce production antibodies for immunity against the disease.

7. Maintenance practices for a battery.

‘ Topping with distilled water to maintain correct level of electrolyte.

– Cleaning the terminals and smearing them with grease to prevent corrosion.

~ Tightly fix the battery in a box to prevent spillage and damages.

– Regular charging.

– Empty contents and turn it upside down on long storage.

‘ Should be fitted correctly on the tractor.

8. Breed (a) Aberdeen (b) Guernsey (c) Sahiwal (d) Red poll 9. Proper nutrition

‘ Prevents nutrient deficiency diseases.

~ Ensures resistance against disease infection.

10. Categories of livestock diseases

– Bacterial

– Protozoan

‘ Viral

‘ Nutritional

11. – Upgrading.

‘ Cross breeding.

12. Bloodless castration methods.

‘ Use of rubber ring and elastrator.

~ Use of burdizzo.

13. (a) recessive gene: An allele whose phenotypic expression is masked by a dominant allele in heterozygous condition.

(b) Epistasis: Gene interaction in which the expression of some alleles is blocked

14. Signs of kindling

‘ Nest building

~ Plucking of fur from the belly.

– Lose of appetite

– Restlessness.

15. Developmental stages of liver flukes in a fresh water snail.

‘ Sporocyst.

‘ Cercaria

‘ Redia.

16. Four strokes of a tractor engine.

‘ induction/inlet

~ compression

~ power

‘ exhaust/outlet

17. Signs of mite attack in poultry.

~ Irritation] scratching g of the body.

– Anemia.

~ Presence of mites below the plumage in patches.

– Falling off of feathers.

‘ Dermatitis due to burrowing effects.

~ Formation of crusts.

18. Advantages of natural feeding in calf rearing.

‘ Calf takes milk at body temperature.

‘ Milk is free from contamination

‘ It prevents scouring in calves.

‘ Milk is provided ad libitum.

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