1. Creates utility-this is the ability to satisfy a need ie form utility-this occurs mainly when we have a change in state. place utility-this mainly occurs in transportation. time utility-this arises in all retail outlets and possession utility-arises when we have ownership of  goods.
  2. Employment creation-this arises when one gets task of designing bill boards, website designers, retailers, wholesalers, warehousing, communications as well as doctors and lawyers indirectly a good example is in the  united states where between ¼ and 1/3 of civilian labor force is engaged in marketing activities and projections indicate that future employment in marketing will remain strong.
  3. Creates revenue to the government due to the taxes that are levied to the marketers.
  4. Earns a country foreign exchange mainly through international marketing.
  5. Entertains consumers e.g. some tv adverts.
  6. Consumers get informed about products that are prevailing in the markets-people are able to consume what they would not have consumed as there is accessibility to products due to cross-border trade, international trade etc.
  7. Widens the markets-this is mainly through advertisements, sales promotion and is also through marketing that goods and services find their way into the trading blocks thereby increasing sales e.g. PTA.COMESA and European markets.
  8. Helps to develop brand loyalty-this arises due to the repeat purchase by existing customers and favourable accommodators by existing customers to friends, neighbours and others.
  9. Helps to introduce new products in the market therefore raising the standard of living for most people e.g. shopping at internet
  10. It generates consumers enthusiasm(become interested in something eagerly) for goods and services.
  11. Has a strong impact on beliefs and lifestyles of people-marketers are criticized as developing materialistic attitudes .
  12. Helps to improve the quality of life as well as preservation of the environment- marketers encourage firms to make safer products ie low-tar cigarettes, create public messages on energy conservation, cure diseases (e.g. usage of Dettol),driver safety ie don’t drink and drive, abuse alcohol and other topics.


  1. Environmental analysis and  marketing research-this usually involves monitoring and adapting to external factors that affect success or failure such as the economy and competition and  collecting data to resolve specific marketing issues.
  2. Broadening  an organizations/individuals scope-this involves deciding on the emphasis to place as well as the approach to take on societal issues and international marketing.
  3. Consumer analysis-this involves examining and evaluating consumer characteristic needs and purchase processes; and selecting the group(s) of consumers at which to aim marketing efforts.
  4. Product planning-this includes goods, services,  organizations, people, places, and ideas-developing and maintaining products, product assortments(a set o  all products and items that a particular seller offers for sale to buyers),product images, brands, packaging and optional features and deleting faltering products.
  5. Distribution planning-this involves forming relations with distribution intermediaries, physical distribution, inventory management, warehousing, transportation, the allocation of goods and services, wholesaling and retailing.
  6. Promotion planning-this involves communicating with customers, the general public and others through some form of advertising, public relations, personal seling and or sales promotion.
  7. Price planning-this involves determining price level and ranges, pricing techniques, terms of purchase, price adjustments and the use of price as a active or passive factor.
  8. Marketing management-this involve planning, implementing, and controlling the marketing program(stategy) and individual marketing functions; appraising the risks and benefits in decision making; and focusing on total quality.


  • Global economy.
  • Changes in technology
  • Income gap
  • Environmental imperative and social responsibilities
  • Aging population
  • Later marriages
  • More divorce
  • Single and smaller families
  • Emergence of distinct ethnic consumer groups.
  • Proliferation of more varied lifestyles.
  • Stringent government policies
  • Poor infrastructure.
  • Inadequate finances.
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