Human-Growth-Development-and-Community-Health-June-July-2011-P-Copy Knec Past Paper

SECTION A (40 marks)
1. (a) Define the term ‘heredity’. (2 marks)
(b) By use of one aspect of an individual’s growth and development explain the role of heredity. (2 marks)
2. (a) By use of an attitude, explain the role of the environment in the development of attitudes among individuals. (2 marks)
(b) Suggest one way to help individuals avoid developing negative attitudes from their environment. (1 mark)
3. Highlight two ways by which mental development can be encouraged:
(i) during the first year of life; (2 marks)
(ii) after the first year of life How are parents expected to react when a child aged between 5-6 years wets the bed? (2 marks)
Give reasons for the reaction in (a) above. (2 marks)
Explain the principle that “growth and development is an individualized process” with
reference to children aged 4-12 years. (4 marks)
State two factors that may influence the growth and development of children between 2-6 years. (1 mark)
Explain the “at risk” concept in child and maternal health care

(b) State two advantages of identifying mothers and children who are at risk of nutritional deficiencies and other illnesses. (2 marks)
Highlight two conditions commonly associated with nutritional deficiencies and other illnesses of children. (4 marks)
Suggest three reasons why social health workers need to evaluate existing health programmes regularly.

(b) Name two parameters which are commonly used to assess improvement in the health of a community. (2 marks)
9. (a) Name four possible causes of disability among children. (2 marks)

(b) State one way in which a social worker may help a child with a disability. (1 mark)
10. (a) What is the main objective of immunization. (1 mark)
(b) Name four diseases other than the traditionally immunisable ones (eg measles, polio etc) that require immunization today. (4 marks)

SECTION B (60 marks)
11. Eric Eriksen in his psychosocial theory of personality development outlined eight stages from infancy through old age.
(a) Outline the major features of the following stages:
(i) industry versus inferiority (6-11 years);

(ii) generativity versus self absorption (middle adulthood);
(iii) integrity versus despair (late adulthood).
(b) From a social worker’s point of view, suggest two ways in which you would help an individual at each of the stages mentioned in (a) above to face the challenges. (12 marks)
12. (a) Define the term ‘learning’. Give an example to illustrate your answer. (1 mark)
(b) State the following laws of learning by Lee Thordike. Give a suitable example for each.
(i) The law of effect:
(ii) The law of readiness:
(c) Describe two areas in social health that the law of effect is applicable. (4 marks)
(d) Outline two ways in which a social worker may create readiness among the people to be served. (4 marks)

13. (a) Define the term aggression and give a suitable example to illustrate your answer. (2 marks)
(b) Explain two possible causes of aggression in the home. (4 marks)
(c) Highlight three signs of an individual living in an aggressive situation. (3 marks)
(d) Suggest three ways of helping individuals living with aggression. (6 marks)
14. In many of our communities in Kenya older children care for the younger ones. Teachers and social workers can therefore build on this by encouraging child-to-child activities.
(a) From a social health point of view, explain the concept ‘child-to-child’. Give a suitable
(b) Describe four areas in which children may benefit from child-to-child activities. (8 marks)
(c) Identify and explain two major shortcomings of using children in social health education. (4 marks)

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