He possibility that one might have an illness bring it own anxieties especial where the person has enjoyed good health previously .If the illness has long term implication then a number of anxieties will  surface  incase of HIV infection these might include shock

On hearing the diagnosis and considering its implication

Through disappointment on not hearing good news

Anxiety fear due to.

Not knowing what course the infection will take

Worrying about the effects of the treatment /medication

Rejection by family /friends community

Isolation through sexual rejection because of the tears of others concerning infection

Anticipating the partner /family inability to cope with the situation

Concerns about job and or skill losses

Despairs because of

Little hope of cure

Persistent worries about ones inevitable physical decline

Recriminations about being infected and /or spreading the infecting

The limiting effects of the virus

The effect on ones family of being infected

The stigma of being HIV infected


Areas Of counseling.

The two main areas of HIV counseling are;

Educating the infected person so that they will understand the nature of their problems explanation of the available treatment options; outlining ways to prevent others from being infected by them and

Support through anxieties and other physical need meets by people in the cause of their illness.

Counseling opportunities will exist at different stage and provided by different individuals.

Appropriate counseling intervention include

Initial attendance at a clinic or medical centre where the at risk person will have the HIV testing procedures explained.

Personal counseling of the HIV-positive person and the partner family where this is possible and applicable

Available treatment regimes

Instruction is safer sexual practices

Explanation of the development and effect of opportunitistic infection and their delay /treatment

Counseling the family of bereaved

Support Networks

Counselors and counseling facilities vary from country to country so there is hardly a standard approach

All community agencies should be alert to their opportunities to provide support to the sick in their midst and to help people with HIV/Aids and their dependants.

This network of support will include:

Families, friends work colleagues

Medical and paramedical staff

Social service charitable organizations

Professional counselor/psychologists

Faith communities

Special organization working specifically with HIV Aids infected people and their families.

Counseling material and messages will need to be particularly relevant to specific target groups whether these be families, women sex workers or youth

Prevention and control of HIV /AIDs

HIV prevention services seem to work best when all the stakeholders are involved in implementation of the strategies .In. Kenya  the Interpersonal donor partners local and international NGO’s faith –best organization are involved in activities and service to prevent HIV/Aids

Some of the activities implemented by this organization include:

  • Basic evaluation and dissemination of information about HIV.
  • Communication about behavior change.
  • Community mobilization to change social norms
  • Training youths and adolescent in life skill and behavior change e.g. being assertions responsibility accountability social skill ways of relating to others developing a positive mage.
  • Peer education and youth to youth initiatives
  • Voluntary counseling and testing (V.C.T)
  • Prevention and treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Prevention of mother to child transmission
  • Prevention of transfusion in medical settings including are blood transfusion and proper injection control
  • Condom education and distribution promotion.

Prevention and control strategies used in Kenya.

  1. V.C.T as a prevention strategy it is a powerful weapon in the fight against HIV/AIDs since it is associated with behavior change that reduces HIV transmission and serves as a point of entry into care for those testing positive through the joint effort of stakeholders

There has been rapid increase of V.C.T sites in Kenya in the year 2008

V.C.T services are offered through site registration by the ministry of health as an effort to increase the number of people who are tested and to expand access to Aids case and treatment.

The National V.C.T programme use for models of services delivery.

Intergrated-Intergarded site are V.C.T centre which are located within the ground of health facilities such as hospital health centers or dispensaries .

There are main advantages include.

Easier referral to medical care service

Low start up cost that allows for an increasing number of people being tested and accesing AIDs core and treatment.

Short coming of integrated sites includes

Health workers

They may have more urgent medical problems to attend to and cannot develop enough time to VCT

Stand alone site –This sites are not usually with existing medical Institution usually have staff denoted to V.C.T, They largely operated by NGOs agencies and they usually located at intensely populated urban areas.


They staff can work full time on VCT service

They have donor funds that facilitate their community approach site.

Are V.C.T centers either intergraded into other social service or implanted as a souls activity of a local community based organization (CBOS)

Mobile sites

V.C.T services are provided as an outreach to remote to reach communities.

Benefits of V.C.T

Helps in prevention of transmission of HIV serves as a flat form for care and treatment of Aids

Helps in planning for individual organization as well as the government

Help in identifying the number of HIV infected persons and ways of addressing or promoting prevention of transmission

It is enhancing referral of HIV position client for proper care and T.B prevention.

Prevention of transmission through blood

Blood transfusion often is a life saving intervention but it comes with a risk because it can transmit Infection if safety mercies are not followed

Safety measures include

Blood screening

Sterilization of needle and syringes before using and discarding after each subsequent use

Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC)

Mother to child transmission of his is responsible for most HIV infection in children a pregnant. Women who is HIV infected is 30-45% likely to transmit HIV to her newborn child. The baby can be infected during pregnancy labor and delivery or through breast milk.

Intervention to reduce transmission of HIV include

Prevent HIV infection in women.

The best way to prevent mother to child is to prevent the women from being affected this include engaging in sex.

For women to have a single and uninfected sexual partners

For young women pregnant women and lactating women to use condoms consistently and properly

Reduce the number of HIV exposed pregnancy women who are HIV infected can use family planning methods to prevent pregnancy.

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