He possibility that one might have an illness bring it own anxieties especial where the person has enjoyed good health previously .If the illness has long term implication then a number of anxieties will surface incase of HIV infection these might include shock
On hearing the diagnosis and considering its implication
Through disappointment on not hearing good news
Anxiety fear due to.
Not knowing what course the infection will take
Worrying about the effects of the treatment /medication
Rejection by family /friends community
Isolation through sexual rejection because of the tears of others concerning infection
Anticipating the partner /family inability to cope with the situation
Concerns about job and or skill losses
Despairs because of
Little hope of cure
Persistent worries about ones inevitable physical decline
Recriminations about being infected and /or spreading the infecting
The limiting effects of the virus
The effect on ones family of being infected
The stigma of being HIV infected
Areas Of counseling.
The two main areas of HIV counseling are;
Educating the infected person so that they will understand the nature of their problems explanation of the available treatment options; outlining ways to prevent others from being infected by them and
Support through anxieties and other physical need meets by people in the cause of their illness.
Counseling opportunities will exist at different stage and provided by different individuals.
Appropriate counseling intervention include
Initial attendance at a clinic or medical centre where the at risk person will have the HIV testing procedures explained.
Personal counseling of the HIV-positive person and the partner family where this is possible and applicable
Available treatment regimes
Instruction is safer sexual practices
Explanation of the development and effect of opportunitistic infection and their delay /treatment
Counseling the family of bereaved
Counselors and counseling facilities vary from country to country so there is hardly a standard approach
All community agencies should be alert to their opportunities to provide support to the sick in their midst and to help people with HIV/Aids and their dependants.
This network of support will include:
Families, friends work colleagues
Medical and paramedical staff
Social service charitable organizations
Special organization working specifically with HIV Aids infected people and their families.
Counseling material and messages will need to be particularly relevant to specific target groups whether these be families, women sex workers or youth
Prevention and control of HIV /AIDs
HIV prevention services seem to work best when all the stakeholders are involved in implementation of the strategies .In. Kenya the Interpersonal donor partners local and international NGO’s faith –best organization are involved in activities and service to prevent HIV/Aids
Some of the activities implemented by this organization include:
- Basic evaluation and dissemination of information about HIV.
- Communication about behavior change.
- Community mobilization to change social norms
- Training youths and adolescent in life skill and behavior change e.g. being assertions responsibility accountability social skill ways of relating to others developing a positive mage.
- Peer education and youth to youth initiatives
- Voluntary counseling and testing (V.C.T)
- Prevention and treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases.
- Prevention of mother to child transmission
- Prevention of transfusion in medical settings including are blood transfusion and proper injection control
- Condom education and distribution promotion.
Prevention and control strategies used in Kenya.
- V.C.T as a prevention strategy it is a powerful weapon in the fight against HIV/AIDs since it is associated with behavior change that reduces HIV transmission and serves as a point of entry into care for those testing positive through the joint effort of stakeholders
There has been rapid increase of V.C.T sites in Kenya in the year 2008
V.C.T services are offered through site registration by the ministry of health as an effort to increase the number of people who are tested and to expand access to Aids case and treatment.
The National V.C.T programme use for models of services delivery.
Intergrated-Intergarded site are V.C.T centre which are located within the ground of health facilities such as hospital health centers or dispensaries .
There are main advantages include.
Easier referral to medical care service
Low start up cost that allows for an increasing number of people being tested and accesing AIDs core and treatment.
Short coming of integrated sites includes
They may have more urgent medical problems to attend to and cannot develop enough time to VCT
Stand alone site –This sites are not usually with existing medical Institution usually have staff denoted to V.C.T, They largely operated by NGOs agencies and they usually located at intensely populated urban areas.
They staff can work full time on VCT service
They have donor funds that facilitate their community approach site.
Are V.C.T centers either intergraded into other social service or implanted as a souls activity of a local community based organization (CBOS)
V.C.T services are provided as an outreach to remote to reach communities.
Benefits of V.C.T
Helps in prevention of transmission of HIV serves as a flat form for care and treatment of Aids
Helps in planning for individual organization as well as the government
Help in identifying the number of HIV infected persons and ways of addressing or promoting prevention of transmission
It is enhancing referral of HIV position client for proper care and T.B prevention.
Prevention of transmission through blood
Blood transfusion often is a life saving intervention but it comes with a risk because it can transmit Infection if safety mercies are not followed
Safety measures include
Sterilization of needle and syringes before using and discarding after each subsequent use
Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC)
Mother to child transmission of his is responsible for most HIV infection in children a pregnant. Women who is HIV infected is 30-45% likely to transmit HIV to her newborn child. The baby can be infected during pregnancy labor and delivery or through breast milk.
Intervention to reduce transmission of HIV include
Prevent HIV infection in women.
The best way to prevent mother to child is to prevent the women from being affected this include engaging in sex.
For women to have a single and uninfected sexual partners
For young women pregnant women and lactating women to use condoms consistently and properly
Reduce the number of HIV exposed pregnancy women who are HIV infected can use family planning methods to prevent pregnancy.