File processing – is the activity that is been passed through by data and files to become meaningful and accessible when needed.
The principal guiding file processing in the computer system include: –
File updating:

The activity of using transaction file to change the content of master files so that it can reflect a current position for example updating a client ledger record with new one. The most significant action here is changing former data or previous data with a new one.
This includes will include the following: –
i. Inserting of new records
ii. Deleting of obsolete records
iii. Modification of existing records
iv. Connection of existing data
File referencing:

This is when a particular record is referenced to, to ascertain what is contained within. For instance, (indication is made to a price file during an invoicing run) or to get information (i.e. get the resident from an applicant record)
File maintenance:

This refers to adding new records, amending or deleting records that are not needed or changing of records on a master file or reference file. File maintenance processing activity can be executed as a separate run, but the incorporation and removal of record is combined with updating. E.g. adding names of employees to a payroll file or deleting record from a customer file.

File searching / Enquiry:

This is to search for record with a particular key or a primary key associated with the records. This process involves searching through a master file to get the accurate record. Obtaining information from a file by copying out the records without alteration or amending it.
File selection:

This can be said to be selection of particular field in a record.
File sorting:

This involves collection of records in a logical file into sequence as determined by a particular key in the record. The computer system is capable of arranging record into orders using primary key or a unique key.
File merging:

This is when two or more different files of similar records and in the same sequence are joined together as to become one file. i.e. combining records in a file so as to form one consolidated file. E.g. Merging records of employees from different branches of an organization so as to form one common file.

File Dumping:

It is discarding all the content of file when it becomes unnecessary. Dumped file are no longer required for any processing. E.g. A transaction is dumped after it has been used to update the master file.
File Organization:

Arranging of records in a particular file with the view of making its retrieval faster.


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