International Trade; aimed at improving economies through export trade and import trade; further it improves the B.O.P of countries.

Emerging trends under international trade include;

1. Globalization; carrying out trade globally / worldwide.

Aims; _ build economies especially of the L.D.Cs by the DCs

_supplement shortages in terms of goods and services

_create political cooperation between countries


2. Economic intergration: is the coming together of different countries with common interest purposefully to trade in order to improve the B.O.Ps of their members e.g. ECOWAS, PTA etc.

Aims: _ expand trade

_Expand the markets

_Develop infrastructures e.g. roads, communication networks e.t.c

Export processing zones

 Development of strategic approaches to economic growth and development e.g.

  1. Millennium development goals to achieve universal growth and development through their implementation and accomplishment
  2. Economic recovery strategies e.g. 2002 NARC government ERSP i.e. it outlines the path to economic growth through specific strategies
  3. 2030 vision paper; developed to help us achieve a middle-based economy by the year 2030
  4. Kazi Kwa vijana programmes to create employment opportunities for the youths.
  5. AGOA summits & its goals towards achieving development in Africa generally e.t.c.

Development planning – the government draws up development plans (i.e. short-term, middle-term &long-term plans aimed at directing the economy towards achieving economic growth and development through their formulation and implementation.

Labour movements/Trade unions; establishment of workers unions/organizations aimed at improving the working environment &welfare of workers for the betterment of their standards of living.

Industrialization strategies; these are aimed at achieving industrialized economies especially by the LDCs e.g. EPs (Export promotion strategies) &ISS (import substitution strategy)

Population control measures aimed at attaining optimum population for efficient &effective utilization of resources in order to obtain optimum output e.g. the adoption of family planning measures e.t.c

Education/training programmes; these have been tailored towards science &technology based programs to match world-economic changing trends& requirements in production.

Manpower planning; aimed at solving the problems of labour shortages & supplies. This is an important measure towards solving unemployment &development of irrelevant skills in the labourforce

Switch from subsistence production to market-oriented production accompanied with the adoption of irrigated agriculture rather than rained agriculture.

Credit facilities programs; aimed at availing finance to potential investors &entrepreneurs to invest in economic activities. In Kenya, the government has created various financial kitties e.g. youth enterprise development funds, women development funds e.t.c

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