This is the basic urge beneath the communication. It is the wider reason why communication takes place. e.g. in a company the urge to communication is to ensure that this year’s profits are higher than last years.

The aim
This is the more particular reason why communication has been under taken. The aim of communication can be: to inform to warn or to initiate a particular action

is the material from which communication would be constructed. The actual content to put across to the listener or reader. An information doesn’t need to be factual it can be an opinion, an idea or combination of ideas and opinions

The sender
This is the person responsible for sending the communication it can be an individual or a group such as a company, a department, a government ministry etc.

The message: after defining the information to be conveyed, the sender puts this into the best form in a process called encoding. When information has been encoded it is referred to as a message. A message takes the form of a letter, a memo, telephone call, or
a shrug of shoulders.

The media
This is a larger group of ways of communication within which particular ways of communication can be classified. There are three main media.

  • Written communication e.g. letters, memo, books, posters
  • Oral communication: this is communication using word of mouth e.g meetings, lectures, telephones or discussions.
  • Visual communication: it takes the form of photographs, blackboards etc.

In addition to these three media we also have non-verbal communication that is combination of gestures, expressions, tone of voice, position, posture, etc.

The channel:
This the physical means by which message is conveyed for written communication channel may be notice board, postal office.
For oral communication. It may be personal interview, committee meeting, or public telephone call.
For visual communication the channel may be computer printer, fax system or printing press.

The receiver:
Is the person or body which receives the message. It can be an individual or an organization.

The noise:
Noise is used to refer to any factors which prevent proper exchange of information apart from that from the sender or receiver. Noise can be physical e.g. typewriters or the telephone bells which interrupt meetings, or it can be some other form of interference
such as bad telephone connections, poor handwriting in letter, conflicting messages, e.g. in oral communication the visual expression conveys a difference message from that being given orally.

Takes place at the encoding or decoding stage. During encoding the sender may encode the message in such away that it conveys a different meaning from that he or she intended to give. During decoding the receiver may interpret the message in a different
way from that intended by the sender. This may lead to distortion of the message.

This is the name given to the message which the sender receives from the receiver to show the acceptance or disapproval of message, such a smile.

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