Question One
(a) Use the Network Address to answer the following questions.
i. How many subnets are available? (2 marks)
ii. How many hosts per subnet? (2 marks)
iii. What are the valid subnets? (2 marks)
iv. What is the broadcast address for each subnet? (2 marks)
v. What are the valid hosts? (3 marks)
(b) Discuss how Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation (PAT) works. (3 marks)
(c) Discuss THREE advantages of Classless Inter-domain routing (6 marks)
(d) Discuss any THREE advantages of IPV6 over IPV4 (6 marks)
(e) Discuss TWO types of NAT (4 marks)
Question Two
(a) Highlight FOUR benefits of sub-netting. (4 marks)
(b) Define the following Internetworking terms (4 marks)
i. Routing
ii. Gateway
iii. Intermediate node
iv. Routing table
v. Autonomous System
(c) Differentiate and explain the functions of the following Routing Protocols. (6 Marks)
(i) BGP
(ii) IGP
(d) Discuss the following WAN connection Types. (6 Marks)
i. Leased lines (dedicated)
ii. Circuit switching
iii. Packet switching
Question Three
(a) Define the following terms. (6 marks)
i. Cold Server
ii. Hot server
iii. Warm server
(b) (i) Define the term High Availability (2 marks)
(ii) Discuss any FOUR causes of planned downtime. (8 marks)
(c) Define the following Terms used in WAN Technologies. (4 marks)
i. Customer premises equipment (CPE)
ii. Demarcation point
iii. Local loop
iv. Central office (CO)
Question Four
(a) Discuss THREE differences between a network switch and a router (6 marks)
(b) Discuss THREE classifications of LAN data transmissions at Layer 2. (6 marks)
(c) With the aid of a diagram, discuss the 4 Layer TCP/IP Model. (4 marks)
(d) Provide the prefix (CIDR) format equivalent for the following masks (4 marks)
Question Five
(a) Discuss the functions of the following Network troubleshooting utilities
i) ping
ii) nslookup
iii) ifconfig (6 marks)
(b) Discuss THREE types of connectivity problems. (6 marks)
(c) Identify any THREE layer 2 encapsulation types that would be used on a WAN rather than a LAN
(3 marks)
(d) Discuss any FIVE measures of High Availability (5 marks)

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