This is a process of change which usually touches economic, socio-cultural, and political and technology.

Approaches to development

Development can either be directive or non directive.

1. Directive development

This is a top-down approach; where planning and allocation of resources is centralized.

In many cases the beneficiary has no say e.g. the central government of Kenya system. When we have the planning and allocation of resources from the Central Government into rural areas.

2. Non directive development

Bottom development approach; this is an approach where by the planning, mobilization or resources, implementation etc. emanates or originates or begins from the mass (people).

It is also called bottom- up approach; it is decentralized.

Development problems in Kenya

  1. Lack of financial resources
  2. Poor planning
  3. Lack of effective policies
  4. Poor implementation
  5. Inadequate personnel
  6. Poor technology
  7. Lack of political good will
  8. Poor infrastructure e.g. roads,
  9. Lack of sustainability strategies.
  10. Natural disasters
  11. Poor leadership/lack of prioritization.



Major social problems in Kenya, causes and consequences

  1. Poverty
  2. Unemployment
  3. Crime and delinquency
  4. Drug abuse
  5. Violence against women
  6. Urbanization
  7. Teenage pregnancy
  8. Population explosion



Every society has expectations on its/her people or members.

These expectations are usually guided or protected by social norms and values and checked through social sanctions (rewards and punishment).

Conformity is the adherence of acceptance or obedience to the social norms and values/societal expectations at any given time.

Deviance is the opposite of conformity; when a member of the society does not conform, obey or deviates from the societal expectations then we talk about deviance.

The sanction of conformity is the reward and the sanction for deviance is punishment.


Both conformity and deviance can be measured in terms of

  • Place (rural/urban)
  • Time
  • Group
  • Situation and circumstances
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