A specification is a statement of attributes of a product, process or service. It is a detailed description of work to be done or materials to be used in a project: an instruction that says exactly how to do or make something.
A specification is a statement of needs and its purpose is to present to potential suppliers a clear, accurate and comprehensive statement of the organization‘s needs in order that they can propose solutions to those needs. At the same time, the specification should enable the organization to readily evaluate offers, provide the basis for performance measurement and be a record of evidence in any dispute.
A specification is also known as an operational requirement or a statement of requirement. It can take the form of a conformance specification – where the organization sets out how the supplier should meet its needs – or a performance or output-based specification where the supplier is given scope to propose solutions to an expected and known end result? A well written specification should describe the need accurately.