KASNEB – Information Communication Technology Study Notes

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Below is sample of INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY TEXT as per July 2021 syllabus

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ICT sample notes

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What is ICT?

ICT is the short form of three basic terms — Information, Communication and Technology. The representation of data in a meaningful way is called Information.

The term Communication may be referred as imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium while Technology refers to methods, systems and devices, which are a result of scientific knowledge, being used for practical purposes.

Information and communications technology (ICT) is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT). It is a more extensive term (i.e. more broad in scope) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management.

However, ICT has no universal definition, as “the concepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis.” The broadness of ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form, e.g. personal computers, digital television, email, robots.

Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, engineering, healthcare, e-commerce and computer services

Components of ICT

Technological change is becoming a driving force in our society. Information technology is a generic term used for a group of technologies. James William (1982) has identified the following six major new technologies as most relevant in modern library and information system.

  • Processor, memory and input/output channels,
  • Mini and Large scale computers,
  • Mass storage technologies,
  • Data communication, networking and distributed processing,
  • Data entry, display respond, and
  • Software

These technologies can also be grouped into three major areas:

  • Computer Technology,
  • Communication Technology and
  • Reprographic, Micrographic and Printing Technologies


  1. Computer Technology

The wide spread use of computer technology has made dramatic developments in the information transmission process in very field of human life. Highly sophisticated information services ranging from elaborate abstracting and indexing services to computerized data bases in almost all scientific disciplines are in wide use all over the world. The current developments in computer technology include mini computers, microcomputers, personnel computers, portable computers, super computers, speaking computer with IQS, microchip technology, artificial intelligence, software developments, C-ROM technology, machine-readable database, etc.


  1. Communication Technology
  2. Audio Technology

Due to tremendous improvements and inventions, older gramophone records are now dwindling and much sophisticated cassettes and tape records are emerging. The outmoded AM (Amplitude Modulated) radio receivers are being received by the modern FM (Frequency Modulation) receivers. Thus, the new audio technology can be used in libraries and information centers for a wide variety of, recreation, etc.

  1. Audio-Visual Technology

Motion pictures, Television, Videodisc are the main contributions of this technology.

Videodisc is a new medium containing prerecorded information, which allows the user to reproduce this information in the form of images on the screen of a television receiver at, will. Videodisc technology offers high quality storage, image stability and speed of recall.

  1. Facsimile Transmissions (Fax)

Facsimile transmission has been boosted by the adoption of methods of data compression made possible by compact, reliable and inexpensive electronics. During the initial stages, the average speed of facsimile transmission was found to be 3.4 minutes per page. This technology was slow and it was replaced by micro facsimile. Satellite communication and fiber optics have increased the potential of facsimile transmission.

  1. Electronic Mail

E-mail is the electronic transmission and receiving of messages, information, data files, letters or documents by means of point-to-point systems or computer-based messages system.

  1. Reprographic, Micrographic and Printing Technologies

The technology of reprography made a big impact on the document delivery system. Most of the research libraries have reprographic machines and provide photocopy of any document on demand. Using reprographic and micrographic techniques, we can condense the bulky archives and newspapers and solve the storage problems. They also serve the purpose of preservation. They help in resource sharing and save the time of users.


  1. Micro Forms

Microforms is a term for all type of micro-documents whether they are transparent or opaque or in roll or sheet form. The verities of microforms are microfilm, microfiche, ultra fiche, micro opaque, cards, computer about microfiche / micro film (COM).

  1. Roll-film (microfilm)

It is a continuous strip of film with images arranged in sequence. It is available in 100 feet roll with 35mm width.

  1. Microfiche

It is flat film having large number of images arranged in rows and columns. Standard sized microfiche of 4×6 inches accommodated 98 pages.

  1. Printing Technology

Thousands of years ago, people recognized the necessity of keeping records of their daily activities. Paper was invented and the art of writing and record keeping came to be defined. At present, lasers and computers have entered the field of printing. Computer printers are three categories; line printers, dot matrix printer, and laser printers. Laser printers are popular today.


An ICT system is a set-up consisting of hardware, software, data and the people who use them. It commonly includes communications technology, such as the Internet.

ICT and computers are not the same thing.

Computers are the hardware that is often part of an ICT system.

ICT Systems are used in a number of environments, such as:

  • Offices
  • Shops
  • Factories
  • Aircraft
  • Ships

They’re also used in fields such as:

  • Communications
  • Medicine
  • Farming

ICT Systems are every day and ordinary, yet extraordinary in how they can add extra power to what we do and want to do.

The importance of ICT systems

By using ICT systems we are:

  • More productive – we can complete a greater number of tasks in the same time at reduced cost by using computers than we could prior to their invention
  • Able to deal with vast amounts of information and process it quickly
  • Able to transmit and receive information rapidly

Types of ICT system

The three main types of ICT system to be considered for GCSE are:

Information systems

This type of ICT system is focused on managing data and information. Examples of these are a sports club membership system or a supermarket stock system.

Control systems

These ICT systems mainly control machines. They use input, process and output, but the output may be moving a robot arm to weld a car chassis rather than information.

Communications systems

The output of these ICT systems is the successful transport of data from one place to another.


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