Information Communication Technology CPA Revision Kit

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December 2023 Question Six B and C

(b) State the unit of measuring a computer’s clock speed, RAM size, Hard disk size and monitor size.     (4 marks)


(c) Discuss THREE challenges associated with the use of external hard drives. (6 marks)



(b) Unit of measuring a computer’s clock speed, RAM size, Hard disk size and monitor size.

 Computer’s clock speed

The unit of measuring a computer’s clock speed is Hertz (Hz). Clock speed is the frequency at which a computer’s processor cycles, or the rate at which a computer’s processor executes instructions. A higher clock speed indicates a faster processor and better overall performance. For instance, a 3 GHz processor can execute 3 billion cycles per second, while a 4 GHz processor can execute 4 billion cycles per second.

  • Megahertz (MHz):Used for older processors and typically indicates millions of cycles per second.
  • Gigahertz (GHz):Standard unit for modern processors, indicating billions of cycles per second.
  • Terahertz (THz):Emerging unit for advanced processors, representing trillions of cycles per second.


RAM size

RAM (Random Access Memory) size is measured in gigabytes (GB) or megabytes (MB). RAM is a computer’s short-term memory, where the operating system, applications, and open files are temporarily stored. A larger RAM size allows for more efficient multitasking and faster access to data, leading to improved overall performance. For example, 8 GB of RAM can store and process more data simultaneously than 4 GB of RAM.

  • Megabytes (MB):Used for older computers or very small devices.
  • Gigabytes (GB):Standard unit for modern computers, offering enough space for multitasking and basic applications.
  • Terabytes (TB):Used for high-performance computers, demanding applications like video editing, or storing large amounts of data.

Hard disk size

The hard disk size of a computer is measured in gigabytes (GB) or terabytes (TB). Hard disk size refers to the amount of storage space available on a computer’s primary storage device, which is typically used for storing files, documents, applications, and operating systems. A larger hard disk size allows for more storage capacity and the ability to store more data, media files, and applications. For instance, a 1 TB hard disk can store up to 1000 GB of data, while a 2 TB hard disk can store up to 2000 GB of data.

  • Gigabytes (GB):Common for basic laptops and desktops.
  • Terabytes (TB):Standard for modern computers, offering ample storage for files, media, and applications.
  • Petabytes (PB):Used for high-end workstations, servers, or storing massive datasets.


Monitor size.

Monitor size is typically measured diagonally in inches. Monitor size refers to the physical dimensions of the screen display on which images, text, and other visual content are presented. A larger monitor size offers a more spacious workspace, improved multitasking capabilities, and better visibility of content. For example, a 27-inch monitor provides a larger workspace than a 24-inch monitor.


For quick reference:

  • 1 byte = 8 bits
  • 1 kilobyte (KB) = 1024 bytes
  • 1 megabyte (MB) = 1024 kilobytes
  • 1 gigabyte (GB) = 1024 megabytes
  • 1 terabyte (TB) = 1024 gigabytes
  • 1 petabyte (PB) = 1024 terabytes


(c) Challenges associated with the use of external hard drives.

 Physical Risks:

  • Durability: Traditional HDDs have moving parts, making them susceptible to damage from drops, bumps, and vibrations. SSDs are more durable but can still be affected by shocks.
  • Accidental Damage: Being external, the drives are prone to getting knocked over, stepped on, or exposed to liquids. Proper handling and protective cases are crucial.
  • Theft: The small size makes them easy to steal or lose, especially when traveling. Encryption and backups are essential for data protection.


Technical Challenges:

  • Speed Limitations: Compared to internal drives, external hard drives, especially those using USB connections, often have slower read/write speeds, impacting data transfer performance.
  • Compatibility Issues: Different devices and operating systems might require specific file systems or formatting, leading to compatibility problems.
  • Connection Issues: Loose connections, faulty cables, or incompatible ports can cause connectivity issues and data transfer interruptions.


Data Management Concerns:

  • Data Loss: External drives are not immune to data loss due to power surges, malware attacks, or accidental deletion. Regular backups are crucial.
  • Organization and Backup Management: Keeping track of multiple external drives and their contents can be challenging. Implementing a well-organized labeling and backup system is essential.
  • Version Control: Managing multiple copies of files across different drives requires careful version control to avoid overwriting older versions or losing critical data.



August 2023 Question One A

Explain how the following elements affect the processing power of a computer:

  • Cache memory.     (2 marks)
  • Data bus.              (2 marks)
  • Type of processor.            (2 marks)



How below elements affect processing power of a computer:

  • Cache memory.

Cache memory is a small, high-speed memory located close to the processor. It stores frequently accessed data and instructions, so that the processor can access them more quickly than if they were stored in main memory. The larger the cache memory, the more data and instructions can be stored in it, and the faster the processor can access them.                                                                                      

  • Data bus.

The data bus is the pathway that carries data between the processor and other components of the computer, such as the memory and the graphics card. The wider the data bus, the more data can be transferred between the processor and other components at the same time, which can improve the processing power of the computer.  

  • Type of processor.

The type of processor used in a computer also affects its processing power. The more powerful the processor, the faster it can execute instructions.



April 2023 Question One A

Veronica and Simon have each bought a computer labelled Computer A and B respectively, with the following specifications:


Assuming that the cost of the two computers are the same, list TWO strengths of Computer A and TWO strengths of Computer B, describing the impact of each strength.     (4 marks)


Strengths of Computer A:

  • 16GB RAM: This means that Computer A can handle more tasks at once and run more demanding programs without slowing down.
  • 15 inch screen: This is a larger screen than Computer B, which makes it better for watching videos, playing games, or working on projects.

 Strengths of Computer B:

  • 512GB Hard Drive: This means that Computer B has more storage space than Computer A, which is useful for storing large files such as videos, music, or photos.
  • 225DPI Screen: This means that the screen on Computer B has a higher resolution than Computer A, which makes text and images look sharper and clearer.


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April 2023 Question Seven B

Citing FOUR reasons, justify why it is necessary for an organisation to sign a contract for the maintenance of computer hardware and software.    (4 marks)


  • To prevent downtime: Downtime is when a computer system is not available to users. This can be caused by a variety of factors, such as hardware failure, software problems, or power outages. A maintenance contract can help to prevent downtime by ensuring that computers are regularly monitored and maintained. This can help to identify and fix problems before they cause downtime.
  • To improve performance: Regular maintenance can help to improve the performance of computer systems. This can be done by cleaning and optimizing hardware, updating software, and fixing security vulnerabilities. A maintenance contract can help to ensure that these tasks are performed on a regular basis.
  • To extend the lifespan of hardware: Computer hardware can degrade over time. Regular maintenance can help to extend the lifespan of hardware by identifying and fixing problems early on. This can save the organization money in the long run by reducing the need to replace hardware.
  • To protect data: Computer systems contain a lot of sensitive data. Regular maintenance can help to protect this data by installing security updates and fixing security vulnerabilities. This can help to prevent data breaches and other security incidents.
  • To comply with regulations: Many organizations are required to comply with regulations that govern the use of computer systems. A maintenance contract can help to ensure that the organization is in compliance with these regulations by ensuring that the systems are regularly monitored and maintained.



December 2022 Question Seven C

Suggest TWO strategies that a country could adopt to minimise the digital divide.     (4 marks)


The digital divide is the gap between people who have access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) and those who do not. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including income, location, education, and gender.

There are many strategies that a country could adopt to minimize the digital divide. Here are some of the most important:

  • Provide affordable internet access: This is perhaps the most important step, as it allows people to connect to the internet in the first place. There are a number of ways to do this, such as providing subsidies for internet access, building more public Wi-Fi hotspots, or making it easier for people to get loans to purchase computers and smartphones.
  • Offer digital literacy training: This training can help people learn how to use ICTs effectively. It can be provided in schools, community centers, or even online.
  • Target specific groups: The digital divide can be especially pronounced among certain groups, such as the poor, the elderly, and people with disabilities. Governments can target these groups with specific initiatives to help them get online.
  • Promote the use of ICTs in education and government: When people see the benefits of ICTs, they are more likely to want to use them. Governments can promote the use of ICTs in education and government by providing computers and internet access in schools and government offices, and by developing online services that people can use.
  • Address the underlying causes of the digital divide: The digital divide is often caused by factors such as poverty, lack of education, and discrimination. Governments need to address these underlying causes in order to truly minimize the digital divide.



August 2022 Question Two A

Giving an example in each case, differentiate between technological convergence and digital convergence as used in information technology communication.       (4 marks)



Differentiation between technological convergence and digital convergence with examples                                                                                                          

Digital convergence refers to the tendency for distinct digital advances and media to become increasingly similar over time. It takes completely separate ideas and smashes them together, so that we’re left with one big idea. One of the best examples of Digital device convergence is surfing the Internet on smart tv, i.e., high-definition TV.

Technological convergence refers to the tendency for previously unrelated technologies to become more tightly integrated and even united as they develop and improve. Using a smartphone to make calls and take digital photos and using your digital TV to perform computing tasks, such as surfing the web while watching a movie, are two more examples of technological convergence


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April 2022 Question Three C

The Tangaza County Government intends to establish information centres.

Explain two services that are likely to be offered at the centres.         (4 marks)



Services offered at information centres.                   

  • Providing information and assistance: Information centers often have trained staff on hand to provide information and assistance to people on a wide range of topics. This can include providing directions, answering questions, and giving advice.
  • Access to resources: Information centers often have access to a wide range of resources, such as maps, brochures, and other materials that can be helpful to people who are visiting a new area or looking for information on a particular topic.
  • Printing and copying services: Many information centers also offer printing and copying services, which can be useful for people who need to print out maps, documents, or other materials.
  • Internet access: Many information centers also offer internet access, either through public computers or through wireless networks. This can be helpful for people who need to access the internet while they are on the go.
  • Tourist information: Information centers that are located in tourist areas often provide information and assistance specifically for tourists. This can include providing information about local attractions, events, and activities, as well as making reservations for tours, hotels, and other services.



December 2021 Question Four B

Propose four duties of an information centre in an organisation.     (4 marks)



Duties of an information centre in an organisation.                    

  • Computer resource planning and justification.
  • New service evaluation.
  • Administrative services.
  • Computer resource planning and justification



November 2019 Question six B

Many people feel that information communication technology (ICT) has led to massive loss of jobs and retrenchment. The truth of the matter is that ICT has also led to the creation of new jobs in business and industry.


Identify four such jobs that have been created by ICT.



Jobs created by ICT

ICTs are influencing employment both as an industry that creates jobs and as a tool that empowers workers to access new forms of work, in new and more flexible ways. Opportunities available include:

  • Software developer
  • Database administrator
  • ICT manager
  • ICT officer
  • Teaching ICT



May 2019 Question Two (a)

(i) Describe four distinguishing features between “low-level” and “high-level” programming languages.

(ii) Identify two examples of high-level programming languages.



Programming languages

Distinguishing features between “low-level” and “high-level” programming languages

High level Low level
Easy to learn and understand Challenging to learn and understand
They are executed slower than low level language  because they require translator They execute with high speed
They don’t provide many facilities at the hardware level They are close to the hardware and help to write a program at hardware level
Easy to modify Hard/difficult to modify


Examples of high-level programming languages

C++, Fortran, Java, Python, Pascal, Visual Basic



November 2018 Question One C

A firm operates an order system that co-ordinates orders, raw materials and inventories across its three branches. Currently, the orders are processed manually at each branch and communicated to the others over the phone. The management intends to computerise the operations of the firm.


Suggest three initial Information Communication Technology (ICT) professionals who might be required and their roles.



Information communication technology (ICT) professionals and their roles when implementing

  1. ICT manager: Roles.
  • Making sure that all tasks in the IT department are done correctly and on time in order to support business planning, control and decision-making process.
  • Preparing budgets for the department
  • Keeping the department inventory records up-to-date
  • Managing the human resource within the department.
  • Managing a team of staff including programmers, analysts and support specialists
  1. System Analyst: Roles.
  • Review the current manual or redundant information system and making recommendations on how to replace it with a more efficient one.
  • Working with programmers to construct and test the system
  • Coordinate training for users of the new system.
  1. Programmers
  • Write in-house application programs or system programs.
  • Customize commercial application package to suit the organization needs
  • Test, debug, install and maintain programs developed or customized for the organization.
  • Coding and debugging


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