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This Revision kit book (Question and answers) contains kasneb past examination past papers and their suggested answers as provided by a team of lecturers who are experts in their area of training. The book is intended to help the learner do enough practice on how to handle exam questions and this makes it easy to pass kasneb exams.
This paper is intended to equip the candidate with the knowledge, skills and attitude that will enable him/her to communicate clearly and concisely orally and in writing in formal and informal situations.
2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES
A candidate who passes this paper should be able to:
- Communicate effectively in an organisation.
- Prepare and design different types of business documents
- Hold effective face to face and telephone conversations.
- Use non-verbal cues effectively in communication
- Demonstrate effective presentation skills.
- Apply the protocols of team and virtual groups’ communication.
- Write formal reports and proposals.
- Apply information technology in communication.
- Communicate ethically.
1 Introduction to communication
- Meaning of communication
- Role of communication in an organisation
- Elements of communication
- The communication process
- Principles of effective communication
- Essential of an effective communication system
- Barriers to effective communication
- Types of communication
- Formal and informal communication
- Flow of communication in an organisation
- Grapevine communication
- Internal and external communication
- Interpersonal and intrapersonal communication
- Cross-cultural communication
- Visual communication – graphs/charts/tables/diagrams/pictures
- Oral communication
- Meaning of oral communication
- Importance of oral communication
- Types of oral communication-face to face and telephone conversations
- Effective listening-The listening process, principles of effective listening, listening techniques, barriers to effective listening
- Interviews-types, purpose, preparation and conduct of interviews
- Persuasive communication- meaning, objectives, creating persuasive messages, approaches to persuasion
- Non-verbal communication
- Meaning and importance of non-verbal communication
- Forms of non-verbal communication
- Effective use of non-verbal communication
- Barriers to effective non-verbal communication`
- Writing skills
- Sentence construction and paragraph development
- Business letters
- Posters and notices
- Forms and questionnaires
- Circulars and newsletters
- Advertisements and publicity materials
- Documents used in business transactions – letter of enquiry, catalogue, quotation, purchase order, invoice, credit note, debit note, others
- V and resume
- Public speaking and presentation
- Effective presentation skills
- Audience analysis
- Selecting and researching the topic
- Preparation and organisation of an effective presentation
- Structure of presentation
- Presentation aids
- Public speeches-structure and delivery of public speeches
- PowerPoint presentations
- Group and team communication
- Group communication networks
- Team communication
- Communicating in virtual groups and teams-group e-mails, what’s app groups, social media
- Meetings- types, role of members, preparation, conduct, documents used in meetings
- Conferences and symposia
- Report and proposal writing
- Types and purpose of reports
- Structure and content of reports
- Types and uses of proposals
- Structure and content of proposals
- Writing of formal reports and proposals
- Information technology and communication
- Role and impact of technology in communication
- Communication networks- internet, intranet and extranet
- Teleconferencing and video conferencing
- Wireless technology
- Ethics in communication
- Role of ethical communication in an organisation
- Principles of ethical communication
- Ethical issues in communication
- Enhancing ethical communication in an organisation
- Factors influencing ethical communication
- Ethical dilemmas in communication
- Handling ethical dilemmas in communication
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION
August 2023 Question Two A
Identify FIVE roles of a receiver in eliminating barriers to communication. (5 marks)
- Listening or reading carefully
- Being open to different types of senders and to new ideas
- Making notes when necessary
- Providing appropriate feedback to the sender, and
- Asking questions to clarify the message.
August 2023 Question Five B
Examine FOUR categories of communication barriers that occur within the communication process. (8 marks)
Communication barriers can arise at any point in the communication process, from the sender encoding the message to the receiver decoding it. These barriers can be categorized into several broad types:
- Physical Barriers:
Physical barriers are those that prevent the message from being transmitted or received effectively. These can include:
- Noise: Background noise can make it difficult to hear or understand the message.
- Distance: If the sender and receiver are physically far apart, it can be difficult to communicate effectively.
- Technology: Technology can sometimes be a barrier to communication, such as when there are problems with the phone or internet connection.
- Linguistic Barriers:
Linguistic barriers occur when the sender and receiver do not share the same language or have different levels of fluency in the same language. This can make it difficult to understand the message or to express oneself clearly.
- Psychological Barriers:
Psychological barriers are those that arise from the sender’s or receiver’s mental state. These can include:
- Preconceived notions: If the sender or receiver has preconceived notions about the other person or the topic of conversation, this can bias their interpretation of the message.
- Emotional state: If the sender or receiver is feeling emotional, this can cloud their judgment and make it difficult to communicate effectively.
- Cultural differences: Cultural differences can lead to misunderstandings, as people from different cultures may have different communication styles and expectations.
- Physiological Barriers:
Physiological barriers are those that arise from the sender’s or receiver’s physical condition. These can include:
- Hearing impairment: If the sender or receiver has a hearing impairment, this can make it difficult to hear or understand the message.
- Visual impairment: If the sender or receiver has a visual impairment, this can make it difficult to read or see nonverbal cues.
- Speech impairment: If the sender or receiver has a speech impairment, this can make it difficult to speak clearly or to be understood.
- Organisational Structure Barriers
As we saw there are many methods of communication at an organizational level. Each of these methods has its own problems and constraints that may become barriers to effective communication. Most of these barriers arise because of misinformation or lack of appropriate transparency available to the employees.
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April 2023 Question Three B
Explain FIVE techniques that could be used while creating effective persuasive messages. (5 marks)
- Understanding the audience: Before crafting persuasive messages, it’s essential to understand the target audience’s needs, preferences, and values. Tailor the message to resonate with their interests and motivations.
- Establishing credibility: Building trust and credibility is crucial for persuasion. Use credible sources, statistics, expert opinions, or testimonials to support your claims and demonstrate authority on the subject.
- Emotional appeal: Appeals to emotions can be powerful in persuasive messaging. Tap into the audience’s emotions by using storytelling, personal anecdotes, or vivid language to evoke empathy, excitement, fear, or other relevant emotions.
- Using social proof: People tend to be influenced by the actions of others. Highlight social proof, such as testimonials, case studies, or success stories, to demonstrate that others have benefited from your message or product.
- Providing evidence: Back up your claims with solid evidence, such as research findings, data, or studies. Presenting logical arguments and factual information can enhance the credibility and persuasiveness of your message.
- Creating scarcity or urgency: Limited availability or time-sensitive offers can create a sense of urgency, motivating the audience to take action. Highlight scarcity by emphasizing limited quantities, exclusive opportunities, or time-limited deals.
- Addressing counterarguments: Anticipate potential objections or counterarguments from the audience and address them directly. By acknowledging and refuting opposing viewpoints, you demonstrate thoughtfulness and strengthen your persuasive message.
- Call to action: Clearly define the desired action you want the audience to take. Use actionable and compelling language to prompt immediate response or engagement. Make it easy for the audience to follow through on the desired action.
- Consistency and repetition: Consistent messaging and repetition can reinforce the persuasive message. Reiterate key points, benefits, or calls to action to help the audience retain the information and internalize the message.
- Tailoring the medium: Adapt the persuasive message to the medium or platform you’re using. Consider the format, tone, and style appropriate for the medium, whether it’s written, spoken, visual, or interactive.
April 2023 Question Five C
Analyse FOUR communication barriers that might be caused by the organisation set-up. (8 marks)
- Hierarchical structure: A rigid hierarchical structure with multiple layers of management can hinder effective communication. Information may get filtered or distorted as it moves up and down the hierarchy, resulting in delays, misinterpretations, or incomplete messages.
- Lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities: Unclear roles and responsibilities can lead to confusion and miscommunication. When employees are uncertain about their responsibilities or the boundaries of their roles, it can create gaps or overlaps in communication, leading to misunderstandings or incomplete information sharing.
- Silos and departmentalization: When departments or teams operate in isolation from one another, communication between them can suffer. Silos can limit the flow of information and collaboration, resulting in duplication of efforts, lack of coordination, and reduced effectiveness in achieving organizational goals.
- Geographical or physical distance: Organizations with multiple locations or remote teams face communication challenges due to geographical or physical distance. Communication can be slower, less frequent, or prone to technological issues, leading to misalignment and decreased efficiency.
- Lack of effective communication channels: Inadequate or inefficient communication channels within the organization can impede effective information sharing. If there are limited or outdated tools and platforms for communication, it can lead to delays, difficulty in accessing information, and decreased responsiveness.
- Language and cultural barriers: In organizations with diverse workforces or global operations, language and cultural differences can hinder effective communication. Different communication styles, languages, and cultural norms may lead to misunderstandings, misinterpretations, and reduced collaboration.
- Lack of feedback mechanisms: Feedback is crucial for effective communication and continuous improvement. If there is a lack of formal or informal feedback mechanisms within the organization, employees may feel hesitant to share their thoughts, leading to limited opportunities for dialogue and improvement.
- Information overload: Excessive information or communication overload can overwhelm employees, making it challenging to prioritize and absorb important messages. Important information may get lost in the sea of emails, meetings, and notifications, resulting in decreased attention and retention.
December 2022 Question Two B
You have been appointed as a communications manager in an organisation.
Explain FOUR ways in which you could use the 7Cs of communication. (8 marks)
The 7Cs of communication is a framework that can help communications managers ensure that their messaging is clear, concise, and effective. Here are some ways that a communications manager can use the 7Cs of communication:
- Clarity: Make sure the message is clear and easy to understand. Use simple language and avoid jargon or technical terms that may be unfamiliar to the audience.
- Concision: Keep the message brief and to the point. Avoid unnecessary details or tangents that may distract from the main message.
- Completeness: Make sure the message includes all relevant information. Don’t leave out important details or context that the audience needs to understand the message.
- Context: Consider the context in which the message will be received. What do the audience already know about the topic? What are their expectations or needs?
- Correctness: Check for errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Make sure the message is factually accurate and unbiased.
- Concreteness: Use concrete examples and specific details to make the message more relatable and memorable.
- Credibility: Establish credibility by using reliable sources and demonstrating expertise on the topic.
December 2022 Question Three B
Explain the strategies that could be applied to overcome the following barriers to communication:
- Use of jargons. (2 marks)
- Difference in perception. (2 marks)
- Distortion. (2 marks)
- Information overload. (2 marks)
Strategies that could be applied to overcome the following barriers to communication:
(i) Use of jargons: One strategy to overcome the use of jargons is to define the terms being used and provide context for how they are being used in the conversation. This can help ensure that all parties involved have a shared understanding of the language being used. Additionally, it may be helpful to avoid using jargon when it is not necessary, as it can be confusing for those who are not familiar with the specific terms being used.
(ii) Difference in perception: To overcome differences in perception, it may be helpful to actively listen to the other person and try to understand their perspective. This can involve asking questions to clarify misunderstandings and actively seeking to understand the other person’s point of view. It may also be helpful to use open-ended questions and reflective listening to encourage the other person to express their thoughts and feelings more fully.
(iii) Distortion: To overcome distortion, it may be helpful to verify information and check for accuracy. This can involve asking for clarification or seeking additional sources of information to confirm the accuracy of the information being shared. Additionally, it may be helpful to use clear and concise language and to avoid using ambiguous or confusing terms.
(iv) Information overload: To overcome information overload, it may be helpful to break down complex information into smaller, more manageable chunks and to present it in a clear and organized way. This can involve using visual aids, such as diagrams or charts, to help illustrate the information being shared. It may also be helpful to allow for breaks or periods of reflection to allow the audience to process the information being presented.
August 2022 Question One B
Explain four roles of a sender in the communication process. (4 marks)
Roles of a sender in the communication process.
In the communication process, the sender is responsible for creating and transmitting a message to the intended audience, known as the receiver. The sender has several roles and responsibilities, including:
- Determining the purpose of the message: The sender must determine what they want to communicate and to whom they want to communicate it.
- Selecting the appropriate channel: The sender must choose the most effective way to transmit the message, such as in-person, by phone, or through a written medium.
- Crafting the message: The sender must choose the appropriate words and language to convey the message effectively and clearly.
- Ensuring clarity and accuracy: The sender must ensure that the message is clear and free of errors, and that it is delivered in a way that is easy for the receiver to understand.
- Monitoring the communication process: The sender should be aware of how the message is being received and be prepared to adjust their communication style as needed.
- Evaluating the effectiveness of the communication: The sender should assess whether the message was received and understood by the receiver as intended, and take steps to improve the communication process if necessary.
August 2022 Question Four B
Explain four physical barriers to effective communication. (4 marks)
Physical barriers to effective communication.
Physical barriers to effective communication refer to any physical obstacles that can interfere with the transmission or reception of a message. Some common physical barriers to communication include:
- Distance: Communication can be hindered if the sender and receiver are physically far apart and cannot see or hear each other clearly.
- Noise: Background noise can make it difficult to hear or understand a message, particularly if the noise is loud or occurs frequently.
- Physical disabilities: Some individuals may have physical disabilities that make it difficult for them to communicate, such as hearing or speech impairments.
- Language differences: If the sender and receiver do not speak the same language, communication can be hindered.
- Poor lighting: Dim or flickering lights can make it difficult to see facial expressions or other nonverbal cues, which can affect the clarity of a message.
- Poor technology: If the technology used to communicate is faulty or outdated, it can affect the clarity and quality of the message.
- Environmental distractions: Distractions in the environment, such as a loud TV or a bustling office, can make it difficult for the receiver to focus on and understand the message.
August 2022 Question Seven C
Discuss four organisational barriers that might interfere with the transmission of information in an organisation. (8 marks
Organisational barriers that might interfere with the transmission of information in an organisation.
- Hierarchy: In organizations with a hierarchical structure, information may not flow freely between different levels of the organization. This can lead to a lack of transparency and hinder the flow of information.
- Departmentalization: If an organization is divided into distinct departments, there may be a lack of communication and coordination between departments, which can hinder the flow of information.
- Communication channels: If an organization does not have effective communication channels in place, it can be difficult for information to be transmitted effectively.
- Culture: The culture of an organization can impact the flow of information. For example, if the culture is one of secrecy or if there is a lack of trust, it may be difficult for information to be shared openly.
- Personal factors: Personal factors, such as personality conflicts or communication style differences, can interfere with the flow of information.
- Poorly defined roles and responsibilities: If roles and responsibilities are not clearly defined within an organization, it can be difficult for information to be transmitted effectively.