SECTION A (32 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section.
1. List three purposes of reports in an organization. (3 marks)
2. State four measures that could be taken to make meetings successful. (4 marks)
3. List three advantages of using audio-visual communication to advertise a service. (3 marks)
4. Outline three factors that interfere with the clarity of a message. (3 marks)
5. List three barriers that may hinder downward communication. (3 marks)
6. Outline four reasons why an organization may ask candidates to apply for jobs online. (4 marks)
7. List three components of an effective paragraph. (3 marks)
8. List three effects of ineffective formal communication. (3 marks)
9. State three reasons why one should be courteous when writing an official document. (3 marks)
10. List three roles of the interviewer during a job selection interview.
SECTIONS (68 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section.
11. (a) Describe four characteristics of effective oral communication. (8 marks)
(b) You work as a sales assistant at Malaka Manufacturing Company. The company has a new body lotion which it intends to launch in two weeks’ time. Write a letter to the distributors inviting them to the launch. (10 marks)
12. (a) Explain five instances when interviews may be conducted in an organization. (10 marks)
(b) Identify four reasons why workers need to be diplomatic at the work place. (8 marks)
13. The table below shows the number of students in various colleges who booked national examinations between 2012 and 2015.
(i) How many students booked examinations over the four year period? (2 marks)
(ii) Which college had the highest number of candidates booking the examinations? (2 marks)
(iii) What is the difference between the years with the highest and the lowest number of candidates? (2 marks)
(iv) Draw a pie chart showing the candidates’ population from the three colleges. Show your calculations.
Urbanization is the movement of people from rural to urban areas in search of economic opportunities. One researcher describes it as “a necessary evil” which is slowing down wind speed as buildings and other structures block the wind’s flow path. As a result, pollutants are not being properly dispersed thus putting the health of hundreds of thousands of city residents at risk. According to research, one such urban setting is Nairobi whose industries have been polluting air up to 100 kilometres away. The populations most at risk have not been those that live within the city, but those who reside a few kilometres away; from Kangemi to Limuru to Naivasha. In a paper presented in Paris by a team of Kenyan scientists, the researchers said that “the winds in Nairobi city are mainly easterlies, implying that the pollutants are transported southwest and northwest of the town.” When these substances are inhaled, they cause respiratory infections
especially among the young and the elderly. The chemicals may also cause_eyedisease. The researchers’ findings seem to be in agreement with the Kenya 2014 Economic Survey which reported that respiratory infections caused the highest number of illnesses in Kenya in 2013. The study, conducted between January and December 2013, showed that most of the commercial activities in Nairobi are concentrated within the city centre whereas most of the industrial activities are located to the southeast of the city. According to the researchers, the transport and dispersion of pollutants from one locality to another is sparked-ofifrby wind, rainfall, air temperature and relative humidity. However, urbanization slows down wind speed due to the tall buildings and structures along the wind’s flow path.
While the air in Nairobi might not have the same number of pollutants as those recorded in its southwesterly neighbourhoods, city dwellers are not safe either. Increased temperatures due to energy use, vehicle emissions and dwindling tree cover are gradually leading to an “urban heat island”. This means that Nairobi area has higher temperatures than the surrounding regions. This in turn reduces atmospheric pressure in the city thus affecting wind speed and, over time, trapping the pollutants within the city. Air pollution negatively impacts human health and has been proven to be dangerous even with short-term exposure. It causes wheezmg, coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat and triggering of existing respiratory conditions such as asthma.
Further, dirty air causes lung damage as well as heart diseaser
_atioke and-cancer. The World
Health Organization (WHO) estimates that one in eight deaths worldwide in 2013 resulted from air pollution. Of these, around 630,000 were from Africa. Air pollution is also a contributor nf acid rain which has been responsibleffir a lot of damage to soil, fish resourccs and vegetation often very far away from the source of the pollutant. iLalso causes maogwhich is a reductiomn visibility due to scattering of light by airborne particles;
The sources of air pollution are identified as soot and carbon due to incomplete burning of fossil fuels such as diesel in traffic, methane emitted in livestock manure, burning of plastics, refrigeration as well as various other industrial gases that have a warming effect on climate.
Other sources include mining and cement production which release dust and carbon dioxide to the environment.
Health experts and environmental activists are concerned that these sources of pollution will continue to exist in the atmosphere for over 15 years before they are eliminated. In ‘Time to Act to Reduce Short-lived Climate Pollutants’, a report by the Climate and Clean Air Coalition in conjunction with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), researchers warn that air pollution is now the world’s largest single environmental health risk.
Adapted from the Daily Nation, Tuesday July 28 2015
(a) State the meaning of each of the following words and phrases as used in the passage:
(ii) slows down;
(v) a contributor of;
(b) In about 110 words and according to the passage, explain how air pollution negatively impacts human health.