SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter summarizes the major findings highlighted in chapter four
The section addresses the content in the chapter
5.2 Summary of research findings
This section summarizes the views expressed by various respondents in relation to the objectives of the study
This is a summation of the researchers view in relation to the responses raised based on each of the objectives. The conclusion must be based on the results obtained.
This must be derived from the results. They should address each of the specific objectives.
5.5 Recommendations for Further Research
This should be based on issues that emerged in t he process of research but were not investigated.
Use the American Psychological Association (APA) format
The research report communicates the findings of the research project. The project should answer questions raised in the statement of the problem and objectives of the study. For a report to communicate effectively it should satisfy the following criteria.
- Completeness: should provide all information relevant to the readers.
- Accuracy: data generated during data collection should be accurate for the report to be accurate.
- Clarity: this is achieved by clear logical thinking and precision of expression. Short simples sentences, no grammatical errors and uniform style and format should observed.
- Conciseness: the writer must be concise in their writing. The report should be brief and to the point.
WAYS IN WHICH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CAN IMPROVE RESEARCH.
Information technology has not only brought the world closer together but it has allowed the world’s economy to become a single interdependent system. This means that a researcher cannot only share information quickly and efficiently but can also bring down barriers of linguistic and geographic boundaries (Kothari, 2010). Of great importance is the issue that the world has developed into a global village due to the help of information technology allowing researchers not only separated by distance but also by language to share information with each other in the language one understands.
Mugenda and Mugenda (1998) state that, there has been growing interest in research networks and its implications on the creation of new knowledge. The rapidly increased use of the web, internet, intranets, extranets, e-business, e-commerce and mobile computing changes the manner in which research is done and even application in business transactions. Of special importance is the emergence of the second generation e-commerce applications such as m-commerce, c-commerce, e-learning and e-government where research can be carried out effectively. It enables researchers to stimulate, visualize, model and experiment with complex, real-world problems, promoting exploratory and inquiry- based models of researching. Further in research, information technology enables and fosters development of critical thinking skills, visualization, conceptualization, integration of disparate data and resolution of patterns within data (Kothari, 2010)
- Online interviewing and focus groups
The internet is used to communicate with research subjects and in addition to quantitative surveys, online approaches to qualitative research have been tried. Online interviewing and focus groups can be an effective means to collect qualitative data. Careful planning and attention to rapport building is useful to elicit the kind of accounts that researchers hope for. People can take part from home and this be able to fit in the interview even though they would travel to a face to face meeting. They may feel more comfortable discussing sensitive subjects online such as fertility problems. According to Slavin (2007), where people are comfortable with the idea of communicating online, it can be possible to use email to collect rich qualitative data. People being interviewed feel that the online interaction puts them more in charge than they would be face-to-face, allowing them to think carefully and reflect on their answers and also respond only when they feel able to cope with the interaction. Data collected online can therefore be useful to researchers and can sometimes provide insights that face to face methods do not.
- Fieldwork on online settings
There is a large quantity of naturally occurring data on the internet that allows a researcher to observe what people do under less controlled circumstances. The internet is a filed site for ethnographic research in which the researcher uses some familiar techniques from more conventional ethnography to explore the culture in the online setting. Ethnography research involves a combination of techniques. When carried out online, it includes observation through reading messages or being present in interactions together with online interviews. Sometimes face to face interviews may be carried out particularly when participants themselves have face to face meetings in the normal course of events (www.researchnavigator.com)
To publish is to bring specific information to the public domain through written documents or by posting such information in a website. Publications refer to published documents including books, periodicals, scholarly journals, magazines among others.. Publishing also includes the distribution of copies of the written work to the general public with the consent of the author. The document may be distributed free on sold. Researchers are encouraged to publish their findings in journals books or other forms of publication. This facilitates wider sharing of research findings among researchers, professionals and policy makers. Publishing research findings and regularly reading journals papers published by other researchers improve ones research skills.
Published articles thoroughly describe the research methodology that the author has followed in conducting the study. Experience has shown that prolific writers of research materials also tend to be exemplary researchers. What such people share with the research community helps to shape the way research is conducted by setting certain standards. Subjecting journal papers to referees, ensures that high standards are maintained in research (Mugenda and Mugenda 1998).
- Bridging the cultural gap
Information technology has helped to bridge the cultural gap by helping people from different cultures to communicate with one another and allow for the exchange of views and ideas thus creating awareness and reducing prejudice. Further, a researcher is facilitated by information technology in connections across disciplinary, institutional, geographical and cultural boundaries (Slavin 2007).
- Saving time
Internet is open for twenty four hours daily all over the globe. This means that a research can be undertaken all the time in a twenty four hour basis. This is unlike the library or research sample which has restricted time. This includes printing the literature one may find fit for benchmarking or aiding his research study.
- Information technology to researchers aids and illustrates the workings of complex methods by exploring cause-effect relationships and hypothetical scenarios. It aids research by encouraging collaboration with other individuals, teams or institutions while exposing researchers to different ideas and perspectives within a limited time frame.
- Calculations/ tabulation of data
Computers perform calculations almost at the end speed of light. They are ideally suited for data analysis concerning large research projects. Researchers are essentially concerned with huge storage of data, their faster retrieval when required and processing of data with the aid of various techniques (Baikie 2003). Researchers in economics and other social sciences have found electronic computers to constitute an indispensable part of their research equipment. Computers can perform many statistical calculations easily and quickly. Software packages are readily available for the various simple and complicated analytical and quantitative and complicated analytical and qualitative techniques of which researchers generally make use of.
To the researcher, the use of computer to analyze complex, data has made complicated research designs practical. Electronic computers have by now become an indispensable part of research students in the physical and behavioral sciences as well as in the humanities. The research student, in this age of computer technology, must be exposed to the methods and use of computers. A basic understanding of the manner in which a computer works helps a person to appreciate the utility of this powerful tool. Researchers using computers can carry on the task at faster speed and with great reliability. The developments now taking place in computer technology will further enhance and facilitate the use of computers for researchers. Programming knowledge would no longer remain an obstacle in the use of a computer (Kothari 2010)
WAYS IN WHICH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN MISUSED IN RESEARCH
Plagiarism is the unauthorized use of close imitation of the language and thoughts of another and representation of them as their one’s original work or simply copying of another’s written work. This is the biggest challenge in research work. It is no secret that plagiarism is the biggest trouble that a writer can get into. A thousand of free information provided by the internet has allowed dishonest writers who steal other peoples work and present it as their own. Most research scholars have misused Information Technology by just copying what others have already researched on and posted their results in the website, this contributes to lack of originality because the work is only but a duplication of other’s work. Some times because the work in the website may have been produced a long time ago, the information at the time of duplication is not up to date especially when the information relies on data or numerical values because time has passed since the data that is in the website was produced hence the duplicated work is not a true reflection of the current time (data is not up to date)
- Over reliance to information may lead to getting irrelevant information
Technology has rocked the research with quite a chunk of literature. This information may be very relevant to one title or topic but equally the literature may be quite large that for one to go through and sieve this requirement is quite a task, this is further made worse by the fact that one in the process may carry out unnecessary information which does not add up properly and this contributes to irrelevant information being gathered. More so today the tools used in research are so complicated that if not correctly and rightly controlled will give out wrong perception including researcher’s conclusion and recommendation which may be disastrous if implemented. This implies that some of these techniques of research like sampling and gathering information must be practically done and results analyzed rather than using the Information Technology to generate them.
- Lack of originality
Since the introduction of Information Technology on research, it has come to notice that most of the researchers especially the scholars do not produce their own original work from the field since they may be undertaking a similar project that is already posted in websites. Since the work could be accessible to anybody this could lead to duplicating work that has already been done without even getting data from the actual field but simply doing exactly what others have already done, this contributes to lack of originality and creativity and this may make the whole research lose its meaning because no much personal effort has been made but only relying on others efforts.
- Lack of privacy or confidentiality (impact on confidentiality)
Confidentiality is one of the ethical issues in research work. A research project should guarantee confidentiality when the researcher can identify a given person’s responses but essentially promises not to do so in publicly. In an interview survey for example the researcher could make public the income reported by a given respondent, but the respondent is assured this will not be done. When a research project is confidential, it is like researchers responsibility to make that fact clear to the respondent. This is not always an easy task to follow. Once the researcher does not keep this confidentiality and the information spreads to the public either through the media or the website, it spreads to a large number of populations and this creates much harm to the feelings of the respondent, because information that is in the internet can be accessed to everyone hence compromising privacy or confidentiality. J. Steven (1996a, 1996b) points out that a certificate of confidentiality to protect confidentiality of research subject data against disclosure can act as an important protection through both filed reports and data in the websites.
- Hacking of research information
Researchers may use computer to steal research data and information stored from other computers through hacking. Computer hacking is the practice of modifying computer hardware and software to accomplish a goal outside of the original purpose. People who engage in computer hacking are called hackers. This involves manipulating other person’s security details (password) and accessing his/her information in the computer software without his/her consent. This is a crime, in some cases, computer hackers or thieves often take advantage of one’s effort to access their information has already been exposed to the public with or without her knowledge. It is true that internet has made research work easier but it is also reflecting an uglier side to its existence through a number of problems to its users. Internet theft and misuse of information has been a great challenge. Cases of people using someone’s information and research and using it as if it were their own have been reported through this practice of hacking. Since at times protection in the computer software may not be effective to keep off hackers, researchers find it difficult to do their work and at times are forced to do it manually.
- Production of poor results
Hokanson and Hooper (2000 ) report that technology use in Education research has generated poor results .He argues out that technology has been used only to automate existing educational processes and thus has short changed its potential. The computer technology be realized leading to improved Educational quality and productivity. In cases where one relies on only what others have already done is a topic related to what one may under take leads to production of results that are not a true reflection.
- Encouragement of cheating through impersonification through the websites
Impersonification in the act of using another person’s identity and details to perform a certain task for him/her. Today people do not do their own work anymore. More and more students and researchers rely on the web to do their work for them. This can range from copy and pasting to paying a website to write a paper for them. This encourages cheating in ones paper in research because the work has been done by another person.
- Use of dominance culture that may be irrelevant to our situation
While information technology may have made the world a global village, it has also contributed to one culture dominating another .In all aspects of life including scholarly work, business among others, for example it is now argued that the US researchers influence others all over the world on how to perform their research and if one does not conform with their standards no matter how relevant the results are, it may be nullified. Languages too have become overshadowed with English becoming the primary mode of communication for research everywhere, bearing in mind that not all countries or nations speak or communicate in English.
- Loosing of data through over reliance
Since most researchers store their information in computer storage devices which includes flash disks, CDS and tapes, without proper backup the information may be lost. It is no longer important to file one’s work in written records because they type their work in computers, store the data in the computers, when these devices get destroyed the information is lost. This issue is brought about by over reliance on technology.
- Null/ Alternative Hypothesis
Null Hypothesis- There is no significant relationship e.g there is no significant relationship between training and performance.
Alternative Hypothesis- indicates a relationship-If employees are trained, performance will improve
- Directional/ Non Directional Hypothesis
The direction of the relationship between the variables- positive or negative is indicated. The greater the stress the lesser the performance Non directional Hypothesis do not indicate the direction of the relationship- There is a relationship between rewards and sales
- Inductive/deductive hypothesis
Generalization based on observation.
- Critical Thinking
- C conclusion
Deductive Hypothesis- Derived from theory
- Hypothesis (based on Theory)
- Data collection to support hypothesis
QUALITIES OF AN EFFECTIVE HYPOTHESIS
- States researchers expectation concerning the relationship between variables
- Indicates what the researcher thinks the outcome of the study will be
- The data collected either supports or refutes the hypothesis
- The hypothesis is testable
- Clear and brief
- The hypothesis is consistent with the existing body of knowledge
Academic conventions and copyright law require that you acknowledge when you use the ideas of others. In most cases, this means stating which book or journal article is the source of an idea or quotation. Referencing is a standardized method of formatting the information sources used in assignments or written work and serves the purpose of acknowledging the source and allowing the reader to trace the source.
There are several styles used for referencing among them are;
- Havard AGPS Referencing guide.
- American Psychological association (APA) Referencing guide.
The APA style consists of rules and conventions for formatting term papers, journal articles, books e.t.c in the behavioral and social sciences.
Reference lists and bibliography
A reference list is a list of all the sources that have been used as in-text references in the research report. A bibliography is a wider list of reading that includes both in-text references and other sources which may have informed thinking on the topic, but may not have been placed as an in-text reference in the research writing.One of the main reasons why referencing is important is to avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism is taking, using and submitting the thoughts, writings etc. of another person as one’s own.
APA CITATION SPECIFICATIONS – IN TEXT
One Author: If a book has just one author, the author’s last name followed by the publication date is usually provided. For example: Freud (1900) found out……Or …as Jones (2001) described…
Direct Quotation: If a direct quotation is used, the APA citing should always include the page number where the source can be found.
No Author: Some sources lack information on authorship. In-text citations should use a short article title enclosed in parentheses and the date. When article titles are long, simply use the first word or two of the title.
For example: The study revealed a strong positive correlation between the two variables (“Learn APA,” 2006).
Referencing materials without dates : According to the official APA style website, the correct way to do this is to include the notation “n.d.” for no date. For example, you would cite an article from a website as follows:
Cherry, K. (n.d.). How to become a psychologist. About.com. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/careersinpsychology/ss/become-a-psychologist.htm
Two Authors: When a source lists two authors, in-text citations should provide the last names of both authors and the publication date. For example: …later studies demonstrated a similar effect (Ross & Hudson, 2004).Or Ross and Hudson (2004) found a similar effect in later studies.
Three to Seven Authors: Proper APA format for sources with three to seven authors requires listing the last names of all authors the first time they are cited as well as the publication date.For example: …results indicated a strong positive correlation between the two variables (Robsen, Hutchkins, Ru, & Selanis, 1989)., Or Robsen, Hutchkins, Ru, & Selanis (1989) found a strong positive correlation between the two variables.
Subsequent citations should list only the last name of the first author along with the publication date. For example: Robsen (1989) demonstrated the affects of…Or …in a study demonstrating these effects (Robsen, et al., 1989).
Seven or More Authors: To cite sources with more than seven authors a listing of the last name of the first author as well as the publication date should suffice. For example: …students demonstrated competence after reading about APA format (Smith et al., 2005). Or Smith et al., (2005) found that…
Organizations as Authors: The full name of the organization is always included the first time the source is cited in-text. The citation should also include the acronym of the organization if one is available. Subsequent citations can simply list the acronym and the publication date.For example: The American Psychological Association (2000) reported that… Or …found that students responded positively (American Psychological Association [APA], 2000). and subsequent citations (APA, 2000).
APA Citing for Electronic Sources
The exact format used for APA citing of electronic media depends upon the type of source that is used. In many cases, the format will be very similar to that of books or journal articles, but one should also include the URL of the source and the date it was accessed in the reference section.
Online Documents: The basic structure for referencing online documents is very similar to other references, but with the addition of a retrieval date and source. Date of accessing the document online should be given and the exact URL where the document can be found.
For example: Cherry, K. (2006). Guide to APA format. About Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/apastyle/guide
Online Journal Article: Online journal articles should be cited much like print articles, but they should include additional information about the source location. The basic structure is as follows:
Author, A. B., Author, C. D., & Author, E. F. (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume number, page numbers. Retrieved from source
For example: Jenet, B. L. (2006) A meta-analysis on online social behavior. Journal of Internet Psychology, 4. Retrieved from http://www. journalofinternetpsychology.com/archives/volume4/ 3924.html
Article Retrieved from a Database: Articles that are retrieved from online databases are formatted like a print reference. For example: Henriques, J. B., & Davidson, R. J. (1991) Left frontal hypoactivation in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 535-545.
Online Newspaper Article: When citing an online newspaper article, you should provide the URL of the newspaper’s home page. For example: Parker-Pope, T. (2011, November 16). Practicing on patients. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Electronic Version of a Print Book: One should only include electronic book references if the book is only available online or is very difficult to find in print. The reference will be very similar to a regular print book reference, except the electronic retrieval information takes the place of the publisher location and name.
For example: Freud, S. (1922). Totem und Tabu: Einige Übereinstimmungen im Seelenleben der Wilden und der Neurotiker [Kindle version]. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/37065.kindle.images
Online Forums, Discussion Lists, or Newsgroups: Messages posted by users on forums, discussion lists, and newsgroups should follow the basic structure for citing an online document. When possible, the posters real name starting with the last name is used and followed by a first initial. If this is not possible, the author’s online screen name is used. The exact date that the message was posted should also be included.
For example: Leptkin, J. L. (2006, November 16). Study tips for psychology students [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://groups.psychelp.com/forums/messages/48382.html
APA CITATION SPECIFICATIONS – REFERENCE LIST
APA format establishes a number of clear rules for how to list reference works using author information. Reference listings vary based on the number of authors to whom the source is attributed.
The basic structure of a book reference should list the author’s last name, first initials, publication year, book title, location and publisher. The reference should appear as follows:
Author, I. N. (Year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person.Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
No Author: Articles and other works that do not provide an author attribution should begin with the title of the work. If the title is a book, list the title first in italics. The volume number and page numbers should follow article titles, while book titles should be followed by the location and publisher name. For example:
A student guide to APA format. (1997).Psychology Weekly, 8, 13-27.
The ultimate APA format guidebook. (2006). Hartford, CT: Student Press.
Single Author: Works by a single author should list the author’s last name and initials. The date of publication should be enclosed in parentheses and followed by the title of the article or book. Books and journals titles should be listed in italics. The volume number and page numbers of the article should follow journal titles, while book titles should be followed by the location and name of the publisher.
McCrae, R. R. (1993). Moderated analyses of longitudinal personality stability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 577-585.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Two Authors: Works by two authors should list last names and first initials separated by an ampersand (&). These names should be followed by the date of publication enclosed in parentheses. If the work is a journal article, the title of the article should immediately follow the publication date. Next, the title of the book or journal should be listed in italics. If the reference is a journal article, provide the volume number and page numbers. For books, list the location and name of the publisher.
Kanfer, F. H., & Busemeyer, J. R. (1982). The use of problem-solving and decision-making in behavior therapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 2, 239-266.
Buss, A. H., & Pomin, R. (1975). A temperament theory of personality development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Three to Seven Authors: Works by three to seven authors should list last names and first initials of each author separated by an ampersand. Author names should be followed by the date of publication enclosed in parentheses.
If the work is a journal article, include the title of the article immediately following the publication date. The title of the book or journal should then be listed in italics. If the reference is a journal article, provide the volume number and page numbers. For books, list the location and name of the publisher. For example:
Abma, J. C., Chandra, A., Mosher, W. D., Peterson, L. S., & Piccinino, L. J. (1997). Fertility, family planning, and women’s health: New data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital and Health Statistics, 23(9), 1-67.
Alper, S., Schloss, P. J., Etscheidt, S. K., & Macfarlane, C. A. (1995).Inclusion: Are we abandoning or helping students? Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
More Than Seven Authors Authors: When a work is credited to more than seven authors, the reference is listed by providing the names of the first six authors followed by . . . and then the final author. The remainder of the reference follows the same format as that for seven or less authors.
Author last names and initials are followed by the date of publication enclosed in parentheses. The name of the article is listed immediately after the publication date. The title of the journal or the book title should be provided in italics. The volume number and page number should follow journal titles, while book titles should be followed by the location and publisher name.
Black, C. P., Arlo, S. T., Rechit, R., Machlen, J. P., Sempson, K., Bee, A. L., . . . Smith, R. K. (1999). Citing seven or more authors in APA format. Journal of APA Style and Format, 17, 45-75.
Black, C. P., Arlo, S. T., Rechit, R., Machlen, J. P., Sempson, K., Bee, A. L., . . . Clark, S. P. (2001). APA format for psychology students. Newark, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Edited Book with One or More Authors: Edited books with one or more authors should follow the basic structure of a book reference and include the initials, last name, and ‘Ed.’ in parentheses after the book title.
Adler, A. (1956). The individual psychology of Alfred Adler: A systematic presentation of selections from his writings. (H. L. Ansbacher & R. R. Ansbacher, Eds.). New York: Basic Books.
Edited Book with No Author: Edited books with no author should list the last name and first initials of the editor or editors, followed by ‘Ed.’ or ‘Eds.’ in parentheses. The remainder of the reference should follow the basic structure and include the publication year, book title in italics, location, and publisher. For example:
Atkinson, J. W. & Rayner, J. O. (Eds.). (1974). Motivation and achievement.Washington, DC: V. H. Winston.
Article Featured in an Edited Book: Articles by individual authors that appear in edited books should list the last name and first initial of the author, followed by the publication date and book title. Next, the editors should be noted followed by the location and publisher. For example:
Bartol, C. R., & Bartol, A. M. (2005) History of Forensic Psychology. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (Eds.), The Handbook of Forensic Psychology (pp.1-27). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Translated Books: Books translated from another language should include the last name and first initial of the author, followed by the year of publication and book title. The first initials and last name of the translator and the notation ‘Trans.’ should then be included in parentheses. Next provide the location, publisher and a note of the original date of publication. For example:
Freud, S. (1914). The psychopathology of everyday life. (A. A. Brill, Trans.). London: T. Fisher Unwin. (Original work published 1901).
REFERENCE PAGES FORMAT
- References should begin on a new page. Title the new page “References” and center the title text at the top of the page.
- All entries should be in alphabetical order.
- The first line of a reference should be flush with the left margin. Each additional line should be indented (usually accomplished by using the TAB key.)
- While earlier versions of APA format required only one space after each sentence, the new sixth-edition of the style manual now recommends two spaces.
- The reference section should be double-spaced.
- All sources cited should appear both in-text and on the reference page. Any reference that appears in the text of your report or article must be cited on the references page, and any item appearing on your reference page must be also included somewhere in the body of your text.
- Titles of books, journals, magazines, and newspapers should appear in italics.
Cherry, K. (n.d). Guide to APA format. About Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/apastyle/p/articlesapaform.htm
Mugenda, O. and Gitau, A (2008), Social science research, Kijabe printing press, Nairobi
Neuman, L.W.(2006), ‘Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches’, 6th edition, Allyn & Bacon
University of Southern Queensland (USQ) (n.d). APA referencing style. Retrieved from http://usq.edu.au/library/referencing/apa-referencing-guide
Wikipedia (n.d). Research. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research