UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS: 2017/2018
EXAMINATION FOR DEGREE OF BACHELOR SCIENCE IN INFORMATION
BIT 2104: DATABASE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
MODE: FULL TIME/PART TIME/DISTANCE LEARNING
DATE: JULY, 2018 DURATION: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Question ONE and any other TWO questions
QUESTION ONE [30 MARKS]
a) Define index as used in databases and give one limitation of indexes.
b) Define the term view and explain THREE uses of database views.
c) Discuss any FOUR components of a database management system (DBMS).
d) Compare and contrast between hierarchical and network database models.
e) State and explain THREE ways of classifying relationships in a database
f) Discuss any FOUR concurrency control problems typical in two or more concurrently executing
g) Describe THREE advantages of object oriented database.
h) Briefly explain any three advantages of a stored procedure.
QUESTION TWO [20 MARKS]
a) You are given the following two tables from a student management. Study the tables carefully and
write appropriate SQL statements to answer the questions that follow:
i. Display all students who take law or business.
ii. Display students who are not pursuing medicine
iii. Display the average fee paid in arts, law and medicine
iv. Display the total fee paid by the students grouped by programmes.
v. Insert a new column in programmes table named Duration whose data type is varchar and the
length is 100.
b) Normalize the following database to third normal form and draw the logical data model.
QUESTION THREE [20 MARKS]
Database concurrency controls ensure that transactions occur in an ordered fashion. The main function of
these controls is to protect transactions issued by different users and/or applications from the effects of
each other. They must preserve the four characteristics of database transactions: atomicity, isolation,
consistency and durability. In this regard:
a) State and explain any four problems that may occur if concurrent transactions with interleaving
operations are allowed in an uncontrolled manner.
b) Discuss any four ways that can be used to control the concurrency control problems you
explained in (a)
c) State and explain four major goals of concurrency control techniques discussed in (b).
QUESTION FOUR [20 MARKS]
A database program is the heart of a business information system and provides file creation, data entry,
update, query and reporting functions. Database programming therefore can be defined as the process of
developing a database application to manage data and information structured as fields, records and files.
In this respect:
a) State and discuss any six activities involved in database programming.
b) State and explain four database connection technologies.
c) Discuss any four best practices that must be adhered to by programmers in database programming.
d) Differentiate between a console and graphical user interface applications.
QUESTION FIVE [20 MARKS]
a) One of the key responsibilities of a database administrator (DBA) is database tuning. Database
tuning can be a daunting task, particularly when working with large-scale data where even the most
minor change can have a dramatic (positive or negative) impact on performance. In this respect:
i. Discuss the activities involved in database tuning
ii. Explain any four factors that may motivate the database administrator to perform
b) A distributed database is a single logical database that is spread physically across computers in
multiple locations that are connected by a data communications network:
i. Discuss four business conditions that encourage the use of distributed databases.
ii. Distinguish between heterogeneous and homogenous distributed database environments.
c) Differentiate between relational algebra and SQL.
d) Describe any four types of backups that can be used in a database
e) Differentiate between casual end users and parametric end users of a database application.