AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR NOTES

Introduction

  • Organization
    Organization comprise of two or more people engaged in a systematic and coordinate effort , persistently over a period of time in pursuit of goals .
  • Behaviour
    Behaviour is defined as what people do which can be observed or measured.
  • Organization Behaviour
    What is organization Behaviour?
    Organization behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organizations effectiveness .

Why study organization behaviour/ importance?
The pace of change in organization is accelerating and transformation is occurring at work place. Therefore its time for organization, to know how to combat change for the prosperity of the organizations. The following are trends that are currently in most
organizations;

Trends in Current Organizations
The following are trends that are currently in most organization.
1. Globalization
Globalization refers to economic , social and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world. It’s an ongoing process which influences aspects of organizations which some are advantageous and others are disadvantageous. Globalization is applauded for increasing organizational efficiency and providing a broader network to attract valuable knowledge and skills while it also presents
new challenges like; competitive pressures , market volatility , longer working hours , heavier workloads and work – family conflict amongst others.
2. Information Technology
The internet and other forms of information technology are changing daily e.g.

  • It is connecting people around the planet and allowing small businesses in developing countries to compete in global market place within organization.
  • It has reshaped the dynamics of organization power and politics.
  • It has created new standards for competitive advantage through knowledge management.
  • It has brought about telecommunication where employees work from home with a computer connection to the office.
  • It has also facilitated virtual teams which are cross- functional groups that operate across space, time and organizational boundaries with members who communicate mainly through information technologies.

3. The changing workforce.
Dimension of workforce involves primary and secondary diversity. Primary dimension involve; gender, ethnicity, age, race , sexual orientation , mental/physical qualities that represent individual’s socialization and self identity .Secondary dimension involve education, marital status, religion and work place. Diversity of this workforce presents both challenges and opportunities in organizations. Opportunities like ;competitive advantage , reverse of market share among others .Challenges involve racism,
stereotyping conflicts e.t.c

4. Emerging Employment Relationships
The changing workforce, new information & communication technology and globalization have fueled substantial changes in employment relationships. Employees face increasing turbulence in their work/employment, where they perform a variety of
work activities rather than hold specific jobs and are expected to continuously learn skills that will keep them employed .This brings implications on job design, organizational loyalty and work stress.

5. Work Place Values And Ethnics
Values represent stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important in a variety of situation that guide decisions and action, while ethics is the study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or wrong and outcomes are good and
bad. Companies are learning to apply values in a global environment and they are under pressure to abide by ethical values and higher standards of cooperate social responsibility.

Scope and Organization Disciplines
Organization behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built on contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines;

1. Psychology
Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain and sometimes change the behavior of human and other animals . Organizational psychologist have contributed to the following working conditions; learning , perception ,personality , emotions ,training, leadership effectiveness, needs and motivational forces , job satisfaction ,decision making processes, performance appraisals, attitude measurement , employee-selection techniques ,work design and job stress.

2. Social psychology
Social psychology blends concepts from both psychology and sociology , where it focuses on peoples influence on one another .Social psychologist have made significant contributions in the areas of measuring, understanding & changing attitudes , communications patterns and building trust .They have also made contributions to group behavior power and conflict.

3. Sociology
Sociology studies people in relation to their social environment or culture .It has contributed to research on organization culture , formal organizations theory & structure, organizational technology, communications ,power and conflict.

4. Anthropology
Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropologist work on cultures and environment has enabled more understanding in fundamental values, attitudes , behavioral between people in different countries
and within different organizations.

5. Economics
This studies the behavior of humans beings in the process of producing goods and services and also in earning and consuming of income .It includes the following ; use of resources ,scarcity , cost , decision making ,negotiation and organizational power .

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