2018 Agriculture Paper 2

SECTION A (30 marks)

1. State six characteristics of a good breeding stock.(3 marks)


  • Young;
  • Healthy;
  • Prolific;
  • High performer/yielder;
  • Free from physical deformities;
  • Fertile;
  • Proper body conformation;
  • Adapted to local conditions;
  • Good mothering ability;

2. State four reasons for maintaining farm tools and equipment.(2 marks)


  • Ensure efficiency;
  • Make them durable;
  • Reduce replacement costs;
  • Avoid injury to the user;

3. State four reasons why a calf should be fed on colostrum.(2 marks)


  • Highly digestible;
  • Highly nutritious;
  • Contains antibodies which boost immunity; Has laxative effect;
  • Highly palatable;

4. Give two reasons for growing grass around a fish pond.(1 marks)


  • Stabilize the banks;
  • Attract insects which lay eggs that hatch into larvae for fish food;

5. Name four systems of poultry rearing. (2 marks)


  • Free range;
  • Deep litter;
  • Fold;
  • Battery cage;

6. State three advantages of conterriporary comparison method of selecting breeding stock.(1½ marks)


  • It is possible to compare animals of different age groups;
  • Eliminates differences due to environmental factors;
  • It is possible to compare bulls of different artificial insemination centres; It is accurate;

7. Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock breeding:

(a) close breeding (½ mark)


  • Close breeding:- Breeding of closely related animals;(b) line breeding (½ mark) 
  • Line breeding:- Mating of distantly related animals that share a common ancestry;(c) out crossing (½ mark) 
  • (c) Out crossing:- Mating of unrelated animals within the same breed;(d) cross breeding (½ mark) 
  • Cross breeding:- Mating of two animals of different breeds;

8. State four livestock rearing practices undertaken in a crush to control parasites and diseases.(2 marks)


  • Vaccination;
  • Deworming;
  • Hoof trimming;
  • Spraying;
  • Dehorning;
  • Treatment/injection;

9. Name the dairy cattle breed that

(a) produces the highest milk yield in kilograms (½ mark)

(a) – Friesian;

(b) is fawn/brown coloured with white colour on the face, legs below knees and hocks, tail switch and flanks (½ mark)


  • – Guernsey;(c) is most suitable for marginal areas with poor pastures. (½ mark) 
  • Jersey;

10. Distinguish between each of the following breeding practices:

(a) clutching and ringing (1 mark)

(a) Crutching:- Cutting of wool around the external reproductive organ of a female sheep to facilitate mating while

Ringing:- Trimming of wool around the sheath of the penis in rams to facilitate mating;

(b) tupping and serving (1 mark)

(b) Tapping:- Act of mating in goats and sheep;

Serving:- Act of mating in cattle and pigs;

11. What is a predisposing factor of a disease?(1 mark)

Conditions which lead to the animal contracting a disease

12. State four candling qualities of good eggs for incubation. (2 marks)


  • Fertile (has germinal disk; black spot);
  • Free from blood spots; Large air space;
  • Free of hair cracks;
  • Free of excessively porous shell; Free of broken shells;

13. Apart from the roof, name four other parts of a building that can be constructed using wood. (2 marks)


  • Floor;
  • Ceiling;
  • Door;
  • Windows

14. State four symptoms of internal parasite infestation in livestock. (2 mark)


  • Starring coat;
  • Eggs and parasites seen in faeces;
  • General emaciation; Diarrhoea;
  • Pot-bellies; Anaemia; Anorexia;
  • Dehydration/pale mucosa

15. State the functional difference between the following:

(a) cross-cut saw and rip saw (1 mark)


  • Rip saw: – cuts along the grain of wood.
  • Cross-cut saw — cuts across the grain of wood;

(b) wood chisel and cold chisel (1 marks)


  • Wood chisel — cutting grooves/chopping rough wood surface;
  • Cold chisel — cutting thick sheets of metal.

16. Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock health:

(a) predisposing factor (1 mark)


  • Conditions inside or outside the animal body which make it to contract a disease;

(b) incubation period (1 mark)


  • Is the duration between the time of infection and the time the first symptoms show up;

SECTION B (20 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

17. The diagram below shows a livestock parasite.

  • (a) Identify the parasite.(1 mark)
  • Tapeworm(b) Explain how the parasite is passed from(i) livestock to human beings(1 mark)


  • Ingestion of bladder worm;

(ii) human beings to livestock(1 mark)


  • Ingestion of eggs (proglottids) passed in human faeces during grazing/feeding;

(c) Explain two control measures for the parasite in a zero grazing unit.(2 mark)


  • Use of antihelmintics/deworming to kill endo-parasites;
  • Proper hygiene in the unit;
  • Proper use of latrines to prevent contamination by infected faeces;
  • Proper cooking of meat to destroy bladder worms;
  • Use of clean feed, feeders, water and watchers to prevent contamination;

18. The diagram below illustrates a tractor drawn implement.

  • (a) Identify the implement (1 mark)
  • Disc plough(b) Name the part labelled H and I(1 mark)H – Beam;

    I – Lower link attachment point;

    (c) State one function of the part labelled K(1 mark)

    Counteracts the thrust by the discs to balance the plough;/helps to adjust the depth of ploughing;

    (d) Explain why the implement is suitable for ploughing areas with hidden stones. (1 mark)

    The discs are able to roll over obstacles;

    19. A farmer is required to prepare 200 kg of dairy meal containing 18% digestible crude protein (DCP).

    Using the Pearson’s Square Method, calculate the quantity of sunflower seed cake (34% DCP) and maize germ (7% DCP) the farmer requires for the dairy meal. (5 marks)


    20. The diagram below represents a practice of identifying livestock on a farm.

  • (a) ldentify the practice(1 mark)Ear notching;(b) Determine the number that identifies the animal represented by the illustration (1 mark)


    (c) Draw a diagram of the animal identified by the number 148 on the farm. (1 mark)

  • (d) Give two reasons why this method of identification is discouraged in livestock rearing. (2 marks)
  • The notching is painful to the animal;
  • Notched wounds cause secondary infections;SECTION C (40 marks)Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 23.

    21. (a) Describe how natural incubation is set up and managed.(8 mark)


  • Provide the broody hen with a nesting box which should be spacious to allow movement of the hen;
  • Provide nesting material in the nesting box to maintain warmth;
  • Provide the broody hen with 10 — 15 eggs; Keep the nest in a dry; and well-ventilated area;
  • Provide the hen with balanced feed and water;
  • Dust the hen with appropriate insecticides to control external parasites;
  • Allow the hen to go out at least once to exercise and feed;
  • Do not disturb the hen when the eggs start hatching;(b) Describe the management of growers in poultry rearing.(5 mark) 
  • Provide adequate floor space, feeders, and waterers;
  • Provide litter on the floor up to 15cm deep; Provide growers mash adlib;
  • Provide plenty fresh water;
  • Dust the birds with appropriate insecticides to control external parasites; Keep the litter dry to avoid dampness;
  • Provide grit or oyster shells towards the end of growers stage/at 12 weeks;
  • Gradually introduce layers’ mash from the 16th week until it completely replaces growers’ mash at 18th — 19th week.(c) Describe seven possible sources of power on a farm.(7 mark) 
  • Human power:- Working directly or utilizing their capacity of organization;
  • Animal power e.g. donkeys, oxen camels for cultivation and transportation;
  • Wind power e.g. for winnowing, pumping water and turning turbines; Water power e.g. driving turbines to produce HEP driving maize grinding mills and pumping water; Biomass e.g. Biogas, wood or charcoal;
  • Solar radiation in photosynthesis, drying crops, generate electricity, etc; Electric power from geothermal, hydropower and nuclear stations, battery;
  • Fossil fuel:- petroleum, coal, natural gas, etc;
  • Tractor:- Bums petrol or diesel to produce power which is transmitted and used in different ways

;22. (a) Describe pneumonia disease under the following sub-headings:

(i) causal organism(1 mark)

Bacteria/virus/HycopIasma mycoides,

Dust and worms in the lungs;

(ii) animals affected(2 mark)


  • Calves;
  • kids;
  • lambs;
  • piglets;
  • poultry;

(iii) predisposing factors(2 mark)


  • Poor ventilation;
  • Overcrowding;
  • Age
  • young animals;
  • Diarrhoea and other illnesses;

(iv) symptoms(5 mark)


  • Loss of appetite;
  • Starring coat;
  • Emaciation;
  • Rapid breathing;
  • Fluctuating body temperature; Nasal mucous discharge;
  • If chest is pressed, animal starts coughing

(v) control measures.(3 mark)


  • Keep young animals in warm houses;
  • Proper sanitation;
  • Isolation;
  • Treatment using antibiotics;

(b) Explain seven housing requirements for a calf.(7 mark)


  • Concrete/slatted floor to facilitate cleaning;
  • Spacious to allow exercise, feeding and watering;
  • Single housing to prevent licking of one another/ skin infections and spread of worms;
  • Well lit to facilitate synthesis of vitamin D;
  • Well drained to prevent dampness which predisposes the calf to infections;
  • Free from draughts: Solid on the wind ward side to prevent entry of cold winds;
  • Leak proof to avoid dampness/wetness which encourages infections;23. (a) State five signs of heat in cattle.(5 mark) 
  • Restlessness;
  • Mounting others and stands still when mounted;
  • Slight rise in temperature; Slight drop in milk yield;
  • Vulva swells and becomes reddish;
  • Clear or slimy mucus discharge from vagina; Frequent mowing;

(b) State five advantages a spray race has over a plunge dip.(5 mark)


  • Suitable for pregnant and sick animals;
  • Animals do not swallow the acaricide wash; Spraying is faster;
  • It is less laborious;
  • Acaricide wash is not wasted as it is recycled

(c) Give five reasons for maintaining livestock healthy.(5 mark)


  • Healthy animals grow fast and mature early;
  • Animals give a longer productive life;
  • Produce good quality products;
  • Give maximum production/performance; Prevent spread of diseases;
  • Healthy animals are economical to keep;
  •  (d) Explain five factors that determine the amount of food eaten by a livestock animal. (5 marks)
  • Body size or weight of the animal; large animals eat more food;
  • Environmental conditions where the animals is; animals in cold areas require more food;
  • Physiological condition of the animal; lactating animals require more food;
  • Level of production:- High producers also require more food;
  • Purpose for which the animal is kept; animal kept as a pet requires less food than the one kept for production or performance;
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